Thus the practice, as is evident from this chronicle, is the same as
described or referred to by Bana in the seventh century. But even in this a gradual change
in the extension of the scope of the practice is to be noticed. The earliest occurs in the
10th century, 902 A.D., when, on the death King Samkara Varman, his three queens, two maid
servants, and one male servant, called Jayasimha, burnt themselves.65
The next incident took place on the death of King Ananta, 1081 A.D.
After his death not only his queen. but two male servants, a litter-carrier, and a few
female servants immolated themselves.66 The next instance of Anumarana is on the death of
Kalasa in 1089, when it concubine immolated herself along with the queens.67 Next
comes the Anumarana of the Queens of Malla 1089-1161 A.D.
Here we see the sister-in-law of Malla, his two daughters-in-law, six
female attendants, his mother and his nurse burning themselves, not with the body of
Malla, but in separate places.68 The last instance of Anumarana occurred in the 12th
century. Here we see only the four queens of Sussala following him on his death.69
This clearly indicates that the scope of Anumarana had gradually
widened. Before the Gupta period the Anumarana was co-extensive with the later Sati rite,
that is, the self-immolation of a wife after the death of her husband. Not a
single instance is known from the Buddhist, Brahmanical. and Jain literature, of relatives
other than wives, friends and dependants of the deceased burning themselves on a man's
funeral pyre or on separate piles.
The above-mentioned incidents show that, in general, Anumarana existed
in Northern India, especially in the northwestern part of India and the Central Provinces.
From the inscriptions in the Epigraphica Carnatika it appears that this custom existed in
the southern part of India also, Inscription No. 47 of the Honnai Taluq70 records the
death of the Kadamba ruler Tailapa, upon which his faithful follower and secretary
Bopanna, in accordance with the vow taken before the throne, and making good his word
given for the occasion (Vile- Vakyam), sacrificed his life, and went to Svarga with