To sum up, the laws of Kautilya are in substantial agreement with those of
Baudhayana and Vasishtha the influence of asceticism, set in motion by Buddhism, is
evident in his laws; he prescribes an interval for women before they can
remarry, but he
clings to the old Vedic rule of allowing them to marry after that short period and by
limiting their choice to the family of their husband. Daughters are not excluded from
inheritance, and freedom is not denied to women.
His treatise, moreover, refers to some other important changes outside
the scope of law, which were taking place in the society of the times. The seclusion of
women, which he refers to in connection with the construction of the palace of a king, is
an important social change that was slowly but steadily developing.
The law books of this period do not refer to it, but we can find,
however, an indirect reference to it in later law-books. The earlier law-books have
injunctions for a close protection and watch over wives, lest, through some defilement,
the man shall be deprived of his son; for, according to sacred tradition, the son will be
claimed by his father in the life after death.
The motive of this rule vouchsafing a close guard over women is
obvious; it is two-fold: to keep the purity of the race and to safe guard the funeral
oblations of the man, for the food offered by any one will go to his father and none
else.14 It was perhaps from this motive that the seclusion of women originated, or, if it
was adopted from other foreign tribes, Hindu law-givers found a sufficient Justification
for its adoption into Hindu society, on the above mentioned grounds.