At midday or at
midnight, when his mental and bodily fatigues are over, let him deliberate,
either with himself alone or with his (ministers), on virtue, pleasure, and
On (reconciling) the attainment of these (aims) which are opposed
to each other, on be- stowing his daughters in marriage, and on keeping his sons
On sending ambassadors, on the completion of undertakings
(already begun), on the behaviour of (the women in) his harem, and on the
doings of his spies.
On the whole eightfold business and the five classes
(of spies), on the goodwill or enmity and the conduct of the circle (of
neighbours he must) carefully (reflect).
On the conduct of the middlemost
(prince), on the doings of him who seeks conquest, on the behaviour of the
neutral (king), and (on that) of the foe (let him) sedulously (meditate).
These (four) constituents (prakriti, form), briefly (speaking), the foundation of the circle (of
neighbours); besides, eight others are enumerated (in
the Institutes of Polity) and (thus) the (total) is declared to be twelve.
The minister, the kingdom, the fortress, the treasury, and the army are five
other (constituent elements of the circle); for, these are mentioned in
connexion with each (of the first twelve; thus the whole circle consists), briefly
(speaking, of) seventy-two (constituent parts).
Let (the king) consider
as hostile his immediate neighbour and the partisan of (such a) foe, as friendly
the immediate neighbour of his foe, and as neutral (the king) beyond those two.
Let him overcome all of them by means of the (four) expedients,
conciliation and the rest, (employed) either singly or conjointly, (or) by
bravery and policy (alone).
Let him constantly think of the six measures of
royal policy (guna, viz.) alliance, war, marching, halting, dividing the army,
and seeking protection.