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BHARATEEYA HISTORIOGRAPHY



SRIRAM SATHE



Published by

BHARATEEYA ITIHASA SANKALANA SAMITI,

14/3 RT, LIGH, Barkatpura, Hyderabad-500027.

Request to the Readers

This monograph is published with an object in mind. Shri Sriram Sathe, Organiser, Bharateeya Itihasa Sankalana Yojana, south and west India, gave lectures in a number of universities and colleges regarding the assessment of chronology of ancient Indian history and historiography. There was much appreciation of his views. The experience prompted us to take up this project. The Samiti asked Shri Sathe to prepare a monograph of the subject of his lectures. We are thankful to him that he gladly accepted our request and gave us the manuscript.

By publishing this monograph, we want to open a discussion among a wider circle. There will be additions to, and differences of opinion about this monograph. We want to compile the various viewpoints regarding the historiography that this ancient culture should follow and publish those views under the names of the writers. The Samiti requests the readers to help this project by sending their viewpoints to our address and oblige.

PUBLISHERS

Bharateeya Historiography

SECTION I

Background

The Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Puranas are, according to the tradition, the history books of ancient Indian history. The tradition was unanimously in vogue till the end of the 18th century, when Sir William Jones, a pioneer among the British scholars, started to study ancient Indian history from the Bhagavata Purana. Prior to that, it was ordained for the kings and the administrators to devote some time everyday to study this history. Even the rishis used to read it. Inference can be drawn from this, that in those days, the science of historiography must have advanced to such an extent that it had created confidence among the scholars about its effectivity to develop ordinary men into those with capital M. Personalities like Shivaji were the products of the developed historiography. History used to be studied along with the Vedic literature. It had a place in the educational curriculum,

What place do these history books have in the present Indian social set up ? These books are not included in the history curriculum since a hundred years or more, Even after independence many scholars do not accept these as history books. But there are some institutions and individuals who, out of conviction about their utility, are voluntarily educating the public through these books. And in spite of their disappearance for more than a hundred years, from the educational field, these books are commanding respect in the hearts of millions of Indians.

In the present curriculum, the ancient Indian history written on the lines of Western historiography, starts from the destroyed Harappan civilization of 2500 BC, It is undecided to whom that civilization belonged. Then come the Aryan invasion over India in 1500 BC, the Vedas in 1200 BC and the Nirvana of Buddha in 483 BC. This chronology and the Western historiography had, then, impressed the scholars many of whom, in great enthusiasm of the new faith, might have discarded the Indian historiography. But now the times have changed. Historians are required to write the history of still ancient millenniums. Hence the Western historiography itself is undergoing a change. They are taking resort, not only to mythologies but also to the oral achieves like folk-tales, etc. Moreover, the recent researches have proved the Aryan invasion as fake, the date of the Vedas incorrect and the date of Buddha undecided.

In such circumstances, and specially when Indians have become independent and are to mold their own future, it is necessary to pause and consider the course we should adopt for our historiography. This monograph is a small effort in that direction.

Dates of the Bharata War:

Chronology in ancient history has always been a baffling problem. it is more so in the case of ancient Indian history. It is understandable. lndia's antiquity is remoter than that of many other nations in the world. Historians have found it difficult to decide which event is historical and which mythical. Many Western scholars considered the Mahabharata War a myth. But many Indian and other scholars, who have their own valid reasons think otherwise. This is obvious from books like Mahabharata War; Myth or Reality ; Differing Views, and Age of Bharata War published recently,

Prior to the entry of Western scholars into the field of indology, there was no confusion on the date of the Bharata War. It was accepted as having taken place 36 years before the beginning of Kaliyuga, which is in its 5092nd year in November 1990. But with the advent of Western scholars and the acceptance of their theories, many scholars have started working on the date of the War. In the book Search for the Year of Bharata War, one peruses the views of 120 scholars, who have opened that the date may be from the 60th century BC to 12th century BC The source material used by these scholars is mostly literary as no archaeological evidence is available. It is said that astronomical references are very often useful to decide the dates of such past events. But the scholars who have used these references have also differed and their date varies from 60th century BC to 12th century BC.



Dates of the Buddha:

The historicity of Buddha is accepted by all. But there is no unanimity of the date. In Sri Lanka, 483 BC is accepted as the date of his nirvana while in Burma 544 BC is accepted. In Tibet it is believed to be 835 BC, while in China, 11th century BC is the accepted date. Buddha was an Indian and the Indian Puranic tradition believes that the nirvana took place in 1793 or 1807 BC However, in the educational institutions, the chronology prepared by the British scholars is taught and according to them, the Ceylonese date i.e., 483 B. C is the date of nirvana. But in 1956 AD, the 2500th anniversary of the Mahanirvana was celebrated in India which means that the Burmese date was given recognition. One date is taught in educational institutions and functions are celebrated according to another date. It is said that the Burmese initiated the idea and funded the publications and a part of the celebrations. Is it not funny to note that historical dates change according to the availability of funds ? it is a pity that no body questioned why the functions were celebrated on a different date. Differences of opinion exist even on the date of Adi Shankara and strangely these differences do not prick the Indians.

Study of the Puranas - Jones:

Western scholars who began their study of the Indian history in the 18th and 19th centuries, found dates of events given therein very confusing. The ancient Indian history is recorded in the epics the Ramayana and the Mahabharata and the Puranas and it extends to thousands of years in the past. The Asiatic Society established in 1784 AD in Bengal by Sir William Jones, a Judge in the British East India Company, aimed at a proper study of the history, the arts, sciences and literature of Asia. Jones learnt from his Sanskrit teacher Radhakant that Bhagavata Purana states a high antiquity for the Creation, the last of the seven Manus (out of a total of fourteen), the Vaivaswata Manu has started tens of thousands of years ago and the Mahabharata War, an important event In Indian history, took place some 3000 years before Christ. The Bhagavata Purana also gives the accounts of various kings, their dynasties and kingdoms which flourished during the Kaliyuga. This information enabled Jones to publish in 1768 AD, a continuous lineage of the Magadha kings for 25 centuries from the Bharata War i.e., from 3101 BC to 452 BC That was the beginning of the study of ancient Indian chronology by Western scholars.

SECTION II

Britisher's Indian Chronology

Indian Historiography Misunderstood:

It is most essential and useful to understand the history of fixation of ancient Indian chronology by the British scholars. Their notions of history writing were different from those of the Indians. Chronology is a must for historiography according to them. They could not understand why the Indian historiographers did not mention the dates of even important events in ancient Indian history, in spite of their definite knowledge about them. Some of them wrongly attributed this to the lack of historical sense in Indian Seers (ancient scholars) and missed the right path to understand the Indian historiography. Once on a wrong path, they became a prey to their self-posed conjectures and prepared a chronology based on those baseless ones. India, the area of which was many times that of their motherland England, was by that time captured and ruled by them. The success created in them a superiority complex. It not only prohibited them from understanding Indian historiography but also forced the chronology thus prepared by them to be taught in the Indian educational institutions. Today, even after more than forty years of independence, the same chronology is being taught in our country. But the modern scientific researches have proved that chronology to be incorrect and an atmosphere for its reassessment prevails among the Indian scholars now. Let us try to understand the history of fixation of this chronology.

Sandrokottas-Chandragupta Maurya Identity:

Sir William Jones could not believe in the antiquity of the Bharata War because of his Christian faith which told him that Creation took place at 9-00 a. m, on 23rd October 4004 BC Similar were the impressions of other Britishers. They did not believe in the veracity of Indian history books. Their bias prohibited the Christians from accepting the antiquity of the Indian nation. Arthur A. McDonnell wrote, "Early India wrote no history because it never made any. The ancient Indians never went through a struggle for life like the Greeks, the Persians and the Romans. Secondly, the Brahmanas early embraced the doctrine that all action and existence are a positive evil and could therefore have felt but little inclination to chronicle historical events." All these Britishers looked from their own glasses. Their nation came into being after struggle for life and when they first got the rule of a single political power. Later, they propagated that India is a nation in making since the advent of the Britishers and their establishing a single political rule in this country.

Jones was not satisfied with the Indian sources. He tried to search the Greek and Roman accounts. These accounts supplied some information about India of the time of the Macedonian king Alexander. It mentioned seven names of three successive Indian kings. Attributing one name each for the three kings the names are Xandrammes, Sandrokottas and Sandrocyptus. Xandrammes of the previous dynasty was murdered by Sandrokottas whose son was Sandrocyptus. Jones picked up one of these three names, namely, Sandrokottas and found that it had a sort of phonetic similarity with the name Chandragupta of the Puranic accounts. According to the Greek accounts, Palibothra was the capital of Sandrokottas. Jones took Palibothra as a Greek pronunciation of Pataliputra, the Indian city and capital of Chandragupta. He, then, declared on 28-2-1793 that Sandrokottas of the Greek accounts is Chandragupta Maurya of the Puranas. Jones died on 27-4-1794, just a year after this declaration and possibly before his death, could not know that Puranas have another Chandragupta of the Gupta dynasty.

Later scholars took this identity of Sandrokottas with Chandragupta Maurya as proved and carried on further research. James Princep, an employee of the East India Company, deciphered the Brahmi script and was able to read the inscriptions of Piyadassana. Turnour, another employee of the Company in Ceylon, found in the Ceylonese chronicles that Piyadassana was used as a surname of Asoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya. The inscription bearing the name of Asoka was not found till the time of Turnour. In 1838, Princep found five names of the Yona kings in Asoka's inscriptions and identified them as the five Greek kings near Greece belonging to third century BC who were contemporary to Asoka.

Sheet Anchor:

In the Greek accounts, Sandrokottas of Palibothra is described as a contemporary of Alexander of Macedonia who invaded India during 327 BC to 323 BC This decides the approximate date of Chandragupta Maurya. Princep's research decides the approximate date of Asoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya as in 3rd century BC Both these dates were adjusted with the reign periods of the three successive Magadha kings, Chandragupta, Bindusara and Asoka of the Maurya dynasty given in the Puranas. Thus, the date c. 320 BC was fixed as the date of coronation of Chandragupta Maurya. Max Mueller, in 1859 AD, finalized this identity of Sandrokottas with Chandragupta Maurya and declared c. 320 BC, the date of coronation of Chandragupta Maurya as the Sheet Anchor of Indian history. M. Troyer did not agree with this conclusion and noted this fact in the introduction to his translation of Rajatarangani of Kalhana. He even communicated his views to Prof. Max Mueller in a letter but did not receive a reply from him.

Smith's Chronology:

Historian V. A. Smith took the chronological identity asserted by the predecessors in this historical hierarchy as the basis for further calculation of the exact dates of the different dynasties that ruled over Magadha after and before the Mauryas. He took the aid of numismatics in addition to epigraphy. He could not however get over, as if by compunction, to follow the Puranas in the enumeration of the kings and their dynasties. But he reduced their reign periods. The total reduction done by these British scholars, from Jones to Smith, comes to 1300 years according to some Indian chronologists. Smith's chronology has come to stay and is being taught till today in India. The Ceylonese date of the Buddha, which is nearest to the present times, has been accepted as a part of Smith's chronology though there are many other valid dates in different countries as already seen. Not only the date of the Buddha, but also the dates in ancient Indian history regarding the writers, scientists and treatises are decided on the basis of this Sheet Anchor which is accepted as final decision.

Aryan Race Theory:

In 1850s, the theory of Aryan invasion in India was built up by English administrators, scholars and missionaries like Lathani, Dr. Chevers and Reverend John Wilson. The theory has dominated the research in ancient Indian chronology. This theory had its origin in the findings of one Italian trader, Philippo Sasetti, He came to India at the end of the 16th century and found a sort of similarity between some English and Sanskrit words, like father-Pitru, mother-Matru, etc. Sir William Jones 200 years later, in 1788 AD, made a statement that Sanskrit, Latin and Greek must have been the offspring of some unknown common language which might have ceased to exist. The language and the speakers of this unknown extinct common language were called Aryan and many conjectures were made about their original habitat. It was said that they might have lived somewhere in Central Eurasia i.e., from Germany to South Russia. They were described as having fair features and white skin. They were also portrayed as having conquering capacities.

Max Mueller dated the first Aryan invasion, of India in 1500 BC, which was just a conjecture. According to him, the Buddhist religion was a reaction to the Brahmanical one i.e., Vedic. The Western scholars had arrived at 483 BC , as the date of Buddha nirvana. Hence the Vedic literature consisting of Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanishads and the epics must have been compiled just before the fifth century BC, the date of the Buddha. According to him, the language of these four types of literature is different and for the development of the language at each stage must have taken about 200 years. Thus, he decided that the first type, the Samhita literature (like Rigveda) must have been compiled in 1200 BC.

Max Muellers's Christian Faith:

The critics of Max Mueller like BC Goldstucker, said that the hypothesis of Max Mueller about the 200 years required for the change of the Vedic language at each stage is based on his faith in the Biblical date of Creation in 4004 BC Dr. Haugh gave the period for the change in Vedic language as 500 years and Dr. Winternitz accepted it as 1000 years. H. H. Wilson, W. D. Whitney and Barthelemeo St. Hillare severely criticized the conjectures of Max Mueller and his date 1500 BC for Aryan invasion. But in spite of this, a majority of the scholars in the West have acted on the dogma that Max Mueller has proved the date 1500 BC for the Aryan invasion on India. Not only the date but the direction of the flow of civilization is accepted from the north-west of India to its southern and eastern limits.


Conjectures after the Harappa Excavations:

Whatever might be the merits and demerits of this Aryan invasion theory, it was accepted by a large number of scholars by the end of the 19th century. Next came the excavations at Mohenjodaro and Harappa (1922 AD). The well developed urban civilization was dated as belonging to some period between 3000 BC to 2500 BC. Because of the proximity of the Indus river, it was named Indus or Sindhu civilization. The date of this civilization went prior to that of Aryan invasion date i.e., 1500 BC and hence it was regarded to be different from the Aryan civilization. Thus, the presently taught chronology of ancient Indian history began from Indus civilization 2500 BC Then came the Aryan invasion in 1500 BC, the Vedas in 1200 BC, the Nirvana of the Buddha in 433 BC and the coronation of Chandragupta Maurya in c. 320 BC These are the main props on which the present ancient Indian chronology stands.

SECTION III

Researches Reject the Chronology

Harappan, the only Scientific Date:

Of the props i.e., the dates described in the previous section, only the Harappan date i.e., the date of the destruction of the so-called Indus civilization has been arrived at after scientific tests. For the other dates, no scientific proof is available. On the other hand, the recent research has substantially proved the incorrectness of these dates. Further, it has challenged the very veracity of the meaningless and unscientific theories like the existence of the Aryan race, their invasion on India and their civilization being distinct from that of the Indus people or that of the Dravidians. Let us analyze the results of the modern scientific research.



Yajnyashalas in Harappan Sites:

Yajnyashalas have been discovered in Harappan sites from Baluchistan in the west up to Uttar Pradesh in the east and Gujrat in the south. This has helped Dr. Ahmed Hasan Dani, a Pakistani archaeologist, to state that the whole of this area must have been under one culture in which Yajnyashalas had a place. Yajnyashala is a special characteristic feature of Vedic culture. So, Vedas and Vedic culture must have been there in that vast portion of India in pre-Harappan times. Therefore, the theory that Aryan and Harappan cultures are separate fails to prove itself. Even the theory that the original home of the Aryans was in Central Eurasia also fails and the Aryan invasion and its date carry no meaning.

Dried Sarasvati Bed from Satellite Imagery:

Another scientific research has also proved the same thing. The American satellite Landsat has sent certain photographs of India. The analysis of these, by the scientists of the Ahmedabad Space Research Center revealed the dried bed of a big river from the Shivalik mountains near Simla up to the Ran of Kuchh. Earlier, the rivers Yamuna and Sutlej were flowing into that river. The scientists found the width of that river at some places to be six kilometers. In the Vedas, there are references to such a big river. It was called the Naditama i.e., the biggest river. Sarasvati must be the name of that river, according to Ahmedabad scientists.

Prior to these findings of the scientists of the Ahmedabad Space Research Center, many other scholars had also come to the same conclusion. Sri N. N. Godbole, an officer of the Rajasthan Government, had chemically analyzed the waters of the wells in this tract and found them to be the same ; while the waters of the wells just a few furlongs away from the tract gave a different chemical composition. Research scholars have also found a thick bed of alluvial soil under the sand bed of Rajasthan proving that some big river was flowing there for a number of years and the alluvial soil got accumulated because of it. The photographs of the American satellite have positively confirmed the conclusion of the earlier scholars. The position of the dried bed of the river is now accepted by a greater number of scholars.

Why Same Date for 260 Harappan Sites ? Sarasvati Culture:

Nearly 260 sites are now considered as belonging to the Indus or Harappan civilization. There are other sites termed pre-Harappan and late-'Harappan and all the three total to 1000. The Harappan sites have the same date of destruction, Scholars were at a loss to understand why all these sites spread over a vast area were destroyed at the same time. Excavations have revealed that these sites were destroyed by natural calamities. What the calamities were nobody knows. The Indus river, after which these sites were named still flows ; perhaps pointing out that it has nothing to do with the destruction of these sites. Of the 260 sites, only about 20 are to the west of the Indus and the rest are on the eastern side. Any culture named after a river will thrive on both the banks of the river. in the beginning, when only Mohenjodaro and Harappa were known, the scholars might have named the civilization after the river Indus because of its proximity to these sites. But now scholars are doubting about the nomenclature. When we look at the dried bed of the river Sarasvati as pictured by the Landsat imagery, the sites which were supposed to be part of Indus civilization, would be on either of the banks of the river Sarasvati. Hence Indus civilization has to be renamed as Sarasvati civilization. Dr. B. B. Lal, Dr. S. P. Gupta and Dr. Shashi Asthana in their article 'Indus Sites', say, "The Indus civilization was the culmination of a long process of cultural configuration that was going on through several millennia in the geographical tract between the hills of Baluchistan and the Ghaggar basin. The culmination or the change from the early Harappan to Harappan seems to have taken place in the Sarasvati basin. The distribution map of Harappan sites shows quite clearly the concentration of Indus sites with early Harappan material overlaid with mature Harappan in the basin of Sarasvati and its tributaries". It is for this reason, that Dr. S. P. Gupta suggests that instead of persisting with the older title, Indus civilization, we might as well call it Sarasvati civilization.

Ghosh and Hussain of the Central Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur have discovered a number of beds of Sarasvati river in which one is of ocean going Sarasvati. Other beds they have dated 1800 BC and the ocean going Sarasvati bed is thousands of years earlier than those, according to them.

The Sarasvati civilization had flourished for thousands of years over a vast area and abundant waters of the river, were helping the civilization in every way. But the drying up of the river, which was a natural calamity, forced the sites to be vacated.

Date of the Vedas Prior to the Date of Harappa:

The drying up of the Sarasvati river must have taken place some centuries earlier to the scientifically decided date of the destruction of Harrappan culture i.e., 2500 BC. This date can be termed as the terminal point of the prosperous Sarasvati culture. The Vedas contain one sukta having so many verses about the river Sarasvati. Thus, the date of the Vedas i.e., the so-called Aryan culture goes earlier to the date of the Harrappan culture and not, after it, as some Western scholars supposed without any basis. The chronology based on this supposition is proved to be incorrect. The two modern discoveries, one that of the yajnyashalas in Harappan sites and the other of the dried track of river Sarasvati have falsified the date and theory of Aryan invasion and the separateness of the Aryan and, the Harappan cultures.

Aryan Race, a Biased Theory:

The Aryan race theory has very much disturbed the chronology of, and approach to the ancient Indian history. As already seen, its origin is in the similarity in words of different languages. It is reasonable to infer that there must have been one group of men in one place speaking the original language and the words must have spread elsewhere along with these men. But the search carried out only in Central Eurasia for this original place smells something else. The word Arya, appears in the Vedic literature, the most ancient in the world. Vedas are universally accepted as belonging to the so-called lndo-Aryans of Sarasvati area. Scholars like Max Mueller and Jones did have this knowledge. It is difficult to understand why the original home of the Aryans, in spite of this knowledge, was not searched in the land of Sarasvati. Moreover, the search was done in a place where there are very few rivers. It is a- generally accepted that in the beginning, man had his habitations on the banks of rivers. Why then the search in a riverless place ? Is it because the land of Sarasvati belonged to Hindus who were a defeated nation then, from previous eight centuries ? Or is it because many of the European nations were then, a conquering people since the previous two or three centuries and the conquerors ego prompted them to search for the original home of the Aryans somewhere near to their countries?

Nancy Stephen Opines Concoction:

Nancy Stephen in her recently published book 'The Ideas of Race in Science' has charged these race scientists with deliberate concoction. The book reviewer Dr. S. K. Mahajan of BARC Bombay writes, "Beginning with the 15th century, the white Europeans came in contact with more and more people around the globe, most of whom looked physically different, thanks so their superior military technology, the Europeans soon found themselves exterminating, enslaving or subjugating many of these people. All this was profitable, though morally difficult to justify. A morally defensible rationale for slavery and colonialism would have been highly useful. Such were the imperatives that led to the genesis, around the year 1800, of what Nancy calls 'the race science', in her book. The basic hypothesis of this science was something as follows".

"Based on their biological constitutions, human beings can be classified in to a small number of well defined racial types. These racial types are fixed and can be arranged in a hierarchy in which the European whites are at the top and the African blacks at the bottom, with others coming in between. The physical, moral and mental worth of any individual is determined by the hierarchical status of the racial type to which he belongs".

"The primary goal of the race scientists was to generate empirical data as well as a theoretical framework in support of the above hypothesis. This they did with remarkable zeal, diligence and persistence for well over a century in the face of formidable practical as well as theoretical set-backs. Their purpose was to show that the white man was endowed with superior mental and moral attributes which were necessary for humanity's progress but were missing in non-whites and then the European domination could be rationalized as the "White man's burden". In spite of the great labors of the race scientists, their work has mostly been forgotten. The emergence of molecular biology of the gene has proved differently".

Crave for Civilized Ancestry:

European nations were created during the past two millennia. Prior to achieving nationhood, they were fighting wild tribes. After their successes in conquering different countries all over the world since the sixteenth century AD, a crave developed in them to prove their ancient and civilized ancestry. In the 19th century AD, they picked the word Arya from the ancient Hindu literature where alone it means respectable, civilized, superior, elder, etc. Seeta calls her husband Arya or Aryaputra and similarly does Mandodary, the wife of Dashanana Ravana. In Rigveda, the word Arya occurs 33 times and 16 times in Atharvaveda. Nowhere it is used to mean a race. In the Siamese(Indonesia) dictionary, which goes prior to the birth of the Aryan race theory, the meaning of the word Arya is given as 'civilized'. Europeans wanted themselves to be honored by others by this name of ancient fame and they invented the theory of the Aryan race.

The Europeans declared themselves belonging to that Aryan race. As the word Arya was taken from ancient Hindu literature, the Hindus were also required to be included in that Aryan race of their conjecture. Hindus were the residents of India. Hence a theory was coined about the original home of the Aryans in Eurasia between Europe and the other to have invaded India. One branch of the Aryans was stated to have gone to Europe and the other to have invaded India. As the Vedas belong not to the Europeans but to Hindus only, Max Mueller inferred that those must have been compiled by the Hindus, the so-called Indo-Aryans, after they reached India. He had already dated Vedas in 1200 BC. Now he dated the Aryan Invasion in 1500 BC, three hundred years earlier to that of the Vedas.

Childish Corollaries Thrusted:

The crave for calling themselves Aryans forced the Europeans to propagate childish corollaries. They were white skinned and possessed particular facial features. These they thrusted on the Aryans. It had all started from similar words found in Latin, Greek and Sanskrit. Max Mueller had pointed out that similar words need not mean that those who use them should possess similar features, bones or blood or similar color to their skin. The Aryan race enthusiasts termed the north Indians (white according to them) as Aryans and the south Indians (black according to them) as non-Aryans or Dravidians. Rama and Krishna are revered personalities all over India. Though they belong to north India they are black. The civilized nature and good qualities according to Indians, have no connection with the color of the skin, facial features or the structure of the body. For example Ashtavakra was a revered rishi, a civilized person though he had many natural bends in his body. From the qualities attached to the Aryans, the race theory seems to be only a conjecture of persons suffering from superiority complex. Ancient Indian chronology need not depend on it or its invasion of India.

Many foreign invaders and travelers have written their memoirs about India from the fourth century BC onwards. The memoirs are available even today. None of them has any where referred to this Aryan invasion and their establishment of the Aryan culture in India. This is only a recently hatched theory having no basis.

Date of the Buddha Undecided:

Max Mueller had fixed the date of the Vedas on the basis of the Ceylonese date of Buddha Nirvana which is nearest to the present times. Many Indian scholars are accepting those dates. But when there are so many dates of the Buddha current in different countries and there is no unanimous decision about it, the Indians need not take the dates given by Max Mueller as decided Ones.

Disbelief in Sheet Anchor on Increase:

The last prop in the Britisher's, Indian chronology, we have to consider, is the sheet anchor date. While moving in various universities, the author has experienced that many Indian scholars have accepted these Britisher's dates as a final decision. But there are also a large number of Indian scholars who do not believe in that date and their number is increasing every year. As already seen, only the Ceylon's date of Buddha nirvana has fitted in the Britisher's Indian chronology which is based on the sheet anchor date. As the knowledge of the different dates to Buddha current in different countries is spreading, the number of Indians doubting the sheet anchor date is also increasing.

The sheet anchor is being challenged since its inception till today. M. Troyer had opposed it in the beginning. In a seminar held in 1981 AD in Madras, scholars had challenged the identity.

No Concrete Proofs:

The Western scholars and their followers in India have been all along insisting on concrete evidence for ancient Indian chronology but they themselves have not been able as yet, to furnish any such evidence for the sheet anchor. All the evidence supplied so far is conjectural. No numismatic or inscriptional proof is available for the date. Same was the condition at the time of V. A. Smith. He had written, "Unfortunately, no monuments have been discovered which can be referred with certainty to tile period of Chandragupta Maurya and the archaeologist is unable to bring any tangible evidence afforded by excavations."

Unanswered Doubts:

According to the Greek accounts, Xandrammes was deposed by Sandrokottas and Sandrocyptus was the son of Sandrokottas. In the case of Chandragupta Maurya, he had opposed Dhanananda of the Nanda dynasty and the name of his son was Bindusara. Both these names, Dhanananda and Bindusara, have no phonetic similarity with the names Xandrammes and Sandrocyptus of the Greek accounts.

In the Greek accounts, we find the statements of the Greek and Roman writers belonging to the period from 4th century BC to 2nd century AD None of them have mentioned the names of Kautilya or Asoka. Kautilya's work on polity is an important document of lndia's mastery on this subject. It was with his assistance that Chandragupta had come to the throne. Asoka's empire was bigger than that of Chandragupta and he had sent missionaries to the so-called Yavana countries. But both of them are not mentioned. Colebrook has pointed out that the Greek writers did not say anything about the Buddhist Bhikkus though that was the flourishing religion of that time with the royal patronage of Asoka. Roychaudhari also wonders why the Greek accounts are silent on Buddhism.

The empire of Chandragupta was known as Magadha empire. It had a long history even at the time of Chandragupta Maurya. In Indian literature, this powerful empire is amply described by this name but it is absent in the Greek accounts. It is difficult to understand as to why Megasthanese did not use this name and instead used the word Prassi which has no equivalent or counterpart in Indian accounts. To decide as to whether Pataliputra was the capital of the Mauryas, Puranas is the only source. Puranas inform us that all the eight dynasties that ruled Magadha after the Mahabharata War had Girivraja as their capital. Mauryas are listed as one of the eight dynasties. The name Pataliputra is not even hinted at, anywhere in the Puranas.

Pandit Bhagavaddatta seems to have studied the fragments of Megasthenes in more detail than those who decided the identity. On the basis of Megasthenes's statements, he has arrived at the following conclusions. "Yamuna was flowing through Palibotha i.e., Paribhadra, the capital of the Prassi kingdom. Palibothra was 200 miles from Prayaga on way to Mathura. The kshatriyas there were known as Prabhadrakas or Paribhadrakas. Their king was Chandraketu. The capital Paribhadra was near to Sindhu-Pulinda which is in Madhya Desha and is today termed as Kali-Sindha. The Karusha Sarovara was between Sindhu-Pulinda and Prayaga." He further states, "Pataliputra cannot be written as Palibothra in Greek because 'P', in Patali is written in Greek as English 'P', only ; then why 'P', in Putra is changed to 'B', in Greek? There is no instance where Sanskrit 'P', is changed to Greek 'B'." Putra cannot be Bothra.

All such criticisms and questions which were advanced against the identification and the sheet anchor from its inception onwards remained unanswered. Max Mueller had not answered Troyer. The Britishers might have continued the same approach till India became independent. But why are the questions not answered after lndia's independence ? Is it due to sheer inertia as Dr. R. C. Mujumdar had termed it ?

SECTION IV

Bharateeya Historiography

Acceptance of Antiquity by Later Britishers:

Though in the beginning of their Oriental studies, some Britishers did not believe in the antiquity of the Indian history and the veracity of Indian historical literature, we find a change in their later attitude. Max Mueller himself, in the year 1890 AD, accepted the antiquity of Indian history by declaring that it is difficult to decide the antiquity of Rigveda. H. H. Wilson had observed that a very great portion of the Puranas is genuine. V. A. Smith admitted the most systematic record of the Indian historical tradition is that preserved in the dynastic lists of the Puranas. Some recent scientific researches, as we have seen already, have also proved the antiquity. Here are some more examples.


Antiquity with Prosperity:

Ramapithacus, a fossil of man's jaw bone, found in Sarasvati river area is dated lakhs of years before present (BP). Dr. V. S. Wakankar was very famous for his researches in rock paintings. An American scholar working under him dated the rock paintings in Madhya Pradesh as belonging to 35000 years BP. Dr. E. A. V. Prasad of Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupathi studied and wrote a book, 'Underground water in Varahamihir's Brihatsamhita'. On the basis of this knowledge, he was able to spot thirty places in the drought effected Saurashtra (Gujrat) in June 1988, where the modern water diviners had failed and where, after drilling, they found water at the depth he had predicted. The date of Varahamihira is in fifth century AD In his treatise, Brihatsamhita, he has written that he had secured the ancient books written by Manu, Baladeva and Saraswata Muni to write his treatise. There are many more examples like this.

Continuous Hindu Social Life:

When it is said that Bharat has great antiquity, it means that it has maintained its special characteristics as a society, a culture or a nation since that ancient past till today. In case of civilizations which are said to be dead, their land is still there and the same blood is flowing in the veins of those who are residing there but they have lost their specialty or special characteristics as a culture or a nation which differentiated them from other nations. The culture, the nationality of Bharat is still alive from the past thousands of years. Bharat can be said to have mastered the science or art of maintaining its special characteristic as a nation. The same can be said about other sciences also. Let us see what Bharat had achieved in the science of historiography.

Dates Noted but Not Stated:

According to the European notion of historiography, dates are a must. Similar is the impression of many of the Indians influenced by the abilities of the Britishers. We shall try to understand the notion of the Indian historiographers.

Let us consider the dates of the Buddha as he is unanimously accepted as a historical figure. The first convention of the Buddhists took place in the year of his nirvana. In that convention, his teachings were compiled and recorded but not his date. It is not that they did not know the date but they did not feel the necessity of putting it down in writing. The second Buddhists convention took place in the reign of Asoka the Great. Then also the date was not put in writing. It is said to be just 200 years after the nirvana. The all powerful monarch could easily have secured the date if he had desired, may be that he had the knowledge of it. Not that he had not written down only the Buddha's date, nowhere in his inscriptions he has given the date of his coronation also. Perhaps he did not feel of giving those dates.

Similar is the case of Vyasa who wrote the epic Mahabharata . He was present when the war took Place. He had full knowledge of the date. What can be the reason for not stating the date ? The epic contains about one lakh Stanzas. He has given so many minute details regarding the astronomical positions of the different events in the War. It cannot be that he did not note down the date of the War because of inertia or carelessness. It will be a grave charge. Similar is the position regarding the date of the Buddha. What can be the reason for not stating the dates?

Ample Historic Literature:

The epics Ramayana and Mahabharata and the Puranas are the history books of Hindus depicting their ancient history. Genealogical lists of kings of different dynasties and kingdoms are mentioned there in. In case of some kingdoms, the reign periods of different dynasties and their kings in succession are given. The interval between some two events is also stated therein to check the calculations. Using all this material, it is easy to calculate the chronology or the dates of different events if the date of any one event during all these long years is fixed in some way. V. A. Smith used the sheet anchor date, c. 320 BC and using the Puranic genealogy had prepared the chronology. Some Indian Scholars used the beginning year of Kaliyuga as the basic year and prepared it.

In spite of such details, there are found different versions in the different Puranas regarding the succession of the kings and their reign periods. In some places, a single king is stated to have ruled for thousands of years. In view of this, an attempt was made some centuries ago in the form of 'Kaliyug, Raja Vrittanta', to study critically the accounts of the dynasties of the Kali Era given in the Puranas, to detect and amend the errors due to ignorant scribes, misreading and misinterpretations and to evolve an authoritative and valued account of the dynasties and the kings, based on maximum agreement among the varying texts of the various Puranas. In this Sanskrit treatise, a connected and consistent account of the Indian chronology from the beginning of Kaliyuga down to the eighth century AD has been given in detail.

Rajatarangini is the history of Kashmir written by Kalhana in 1178 AD. He used the records of twelve ancient chronicles and the inscriptions of grants of the old kings. From this, he sifted the evidence available at his disposal with great care, caution and patience and arrived at the correct historical material. According to the historian V. A. Smith, Rajatarangini comes nearest to the European notion of a regular history. Many other genealogies like that of Nepal, the Trigarta, etc. are also useful for ancient Indian chronology. Apart from the genealogies of the kings, lists of successive heads of different sects along with the working period of each of them (like the Shankara Peethas) in succession are also available and useful.

History not Only Popular but Also Revered:

In the massive Indian historical literature, very few books came nearer to the European notion of regular history. But this literature, which is available in all Indian languages and even in dialects, is accepted as their history by all Indians since last thousands of years. It is quite popular and is recited on and often. It is so much revered that some Indians worship it. And this is going on since a very long time, longer than the life-span of the European nations. Indian notions of historiography are far different than those of the Europeans. As in the case of every other discipline, regarding historiography also, Indian seers invariably adopted an integrated life-view.

Aimed to Culture Individual Mind:

Indian historical literature was composed with a definite object. Ancient Hindu seers wanted the history books to impress the minds of individuals in such a way that they would develop a balanced approach towards life and achieve the four Purusharthas Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha during their life time. (The report of the past in the form of stories is called 'Itihas' history). It is an advice (to the individual) to achieve the Purusharthas, Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha.)

Their studies and long experience had convinced that the behavior of individuals of such a balanced mental frame in a society creates peace, prosperity, happiness and longevity in it. Seers had a conviction that events and anecdotes of history and the morals derived from them were more effective in molding the minds of the individuals than were the continuous dates of events and the names of the authors. That is why one finds a number of side stories introduced in the main story of the Mahabharata. It Is not a defect but a useful characteristic of the epic. That is the Indian way of history writing. It was done with a definite purpose.

Aim Fulfilled:

It is generally agreed by many modern scholars that the presently available recensions of the epics and the Puranas were compiled around the beginning of the Christian Era. Traditionally the date goes to the beginning of the Kali Era. Accepting the views of the modern scholars, though two thousand years have passed since their completion and though there has been a vast change in the circumstances, those recensions are still found to be very useful and effective in cultivating the minds of the Hindus. Mahatma Gandhi wanted Ramarajya after independence. Many isms had cropped up by that time and the countries following them were quite prosperous also. Yet he favored Ramarajya of Rama's time. Such an everlasting influence do the Indian history books possess.

Studies and Organized Efforts:

Ancient Hindu seers had seriously, deeply and selflessly studied individual human psychology, the social psychology and the relation between man and nature. On the basis of this, they had decided the psychological approach an individual should have towards the rest. Long-standing, peaceful, prosperous and happy human society was their aim.

For this, they took great pains and worked selflessly in an organized way. These Hindu seers were scholars well versed in their subjects, every ounce of whose energy was spent for the well being of mankind and who were honored both by the rulers and the ruled. It is difficult to get individuals respected by both the rulers and the ruled. But, India, in ancient times, had them in plenty. Such seers had the practice of conferring together from time to time. The Naimisharanya conference of such scholars is said to have continued for twelve years. Smritis, history books and such other literature useful for the society was prepared by organized effort. It used to be an all India effort. The original books were not only written in different scripts but were also translated in many languages of India and the neighboring countries. And these are revered everywhere.

Generations of Devoted Reciters:

The Hindu Seers were not satisfied with mere compiling of history books. That alone would not fulfill their aim. They wanted the written matter to reach every individual, literate or illiterate and produce the desired effect on him. Reciters or Sutas were intended for the task. India is a vast country, having a large population and speaking a number of languages. The number of reciters required also must be in that proportion. Moreover, these reciters would have to narrate the history time and time again according to the convenience of the villager and also the forest dwellers and this is to continue for thousands of years. Hence generations after generations of reciters were trained to narrate history skillfully and effectively in various languages of this vast country. These sutas considered it their sacred duty and life-time mission to be wandering minstrels all their life, whatever be the odds they were required to face. They had conviction that whatever is written in these books is the history of this nation. it is most useful to the society and hence, they deemed it their duty to devote their lives to deliver it to the masses. The compilers had not only compiled the history but due to the quality of the compilation had created a conviction about its utility in a number of life-devoting reciters. Such a great importance they had attached to the science of historiography.

Beginning Unknown:

Such are the Indian notions of history writing. These must have evolved due to the longevity of this nation. The compilers were to write the history of a nation, the beginning of which goes to the remotest past. Nobody knows the date. The life of this nation is longer than that of the writing material, whether paper, palmyra leaves, metals or stone. It is said that the barbarian invaders have destroyed our libraries and the source material. No doubt they have destroyed a lot. The huge library at Nalanda University was burning for days together. But in case of this nation, this loss can be said to be only a drop in the ocean. Nature and natural calamities have destroyed major portion of the source material. One thousand sites of Harappan civilization known so far, were destroyed by natural calamities. What a huge source material must have been destroyed then ? And it is but natural for a nation having such a longevity.

We do not know whether Valmiki who is said to have written the Ramayana and Vyasa who is said to have compiled the Mahabharata and the Puranas, themselves knew about the beginning of the life of this nation. One need not wonder hence, if they take the birth of this nation with that of the Creation it self. In ancient Indian literature, the compilation by Vyasa is numbered 28th, believe it-or not. None of the previous compilations is available at present. Many doubt whether they should believe in those 27 compilations. But what about the Tamil Sangam literature ? Three Sangams i.e., associations of literature, are said to have continued for long number of years. Of the three Sangams the literature of only the last Sangam, that too very few books, is available now. All the rest was washed away by the sea, a natural calamity.

Longevity Decided Historiography:

It is possible in case of short lived nations to prepare a continuous chronology of their history but not so in case of India whose source material is being destroyed by nature because of its longevity. Indians have evolved their special type of historiography suitable not only to describe their past but also to help the nation to continue its life for long in future. It was a carefully studied decision. It saved the Indian nation for the last thousands of years from the man-made attacks as well as natural calamities. It also saved their nation from the bad effects of ample prosperity which some countries are found experiencing at present. The availability of continuous chronology of short lived nations may be useful to other nations for information, but not much for guidance to plan their future. Indian historiography is definitely useful for this. They can understand the secrets of longevity of the Hindus. The Indian notion of historiography is much superior to the European one.






SECTION V

Fresh Responsibility

Understanding the Change:

The world circumstances have very much changed now. During the past two or three centuries, the world has experienced such a rapid change as was never witnessed over thousands of years in the past. The inventions relating to communications have made the world smaller. Within a few hours one can get any piece of information from any quarter of the world. The scientific developments have whetted the desire for extensive and exact knowledge and also inspired confidence in acquiring it. In such circumstances it is essential that the Indian history books are made up-to-date. The utility of Indian history is now not limited to the Indians only. The world wants to know it and learn from it. A long interval has passed since books on Indian history were compiled according to the Bharateeya historiography. Fresh effort is most urgent. The changed circumstances should also be taken note of. In this new recension, in addition to the original qualities of Indian historiography, some complementary details, like the chronology for some thousands of years, may be added to facilitate the foreigners to understand it.

Westerner's Urge to Know the Secrets of Longevity:

Especially after industrialization, when so many isms have cropped up, each dogmatically putting forth its theory as the best, and when most of them have failed we see many Western scholars, like Theodar Shey, who want to know the secrets of the longevity of Hindu society and the number of such scholars is ever increasing. India of today, is well behind many other countries as far as industrialization, development of scientific knowledge and material prosperity are concerned. But the Indian, in comparison with other nationals is found enjoying mental peace and tranquillity, faith in his heritage and tradition and confidence of getting help from his society. Western scholars want to know the reasons for this difference.

Integral Comprehensive Approach:

It is essential to understand the meaning of the word 'Itihasa'. Today the subject of history that is being taught in the Indian educational institutions consists of only political events. If the English word 'history' has that limited meaning that cannot be the translation of Bharateeya word Itihasa. Itihasa includes narration of past events concerning all the facets of human life-material, moral and spiritual. On the basis of this approach towards animate and inanimate world, Itihasa has tried to ingrain moral values in every individual of the Hindu society as one constituent of the whole nature. The European approach has ever been material. Though Europeans and others, in recent years, are found increasing the scope of the meaning of the word history, and it is encompassing many other subjects than political history, it has remained limited to the material world only. Many such scholars are found nowadays to discover the history of the common man as against that of the kings. It may be called a reaction to the kingship which is now observed as outdated. But herein, man is taken as a material being. Indian approach, as the word Itihasa means, has all the time remained integrated, taking man as a spiritual as well as material constituent of nature. It is more broad and real than taking man as only a material being.

That is the approach in which Vyasa had compiled Indian history. About his epic Mahabharata, it is said that the author has tackled all subjects in the world. "Vyasotchishtam jagatsarvar". Hence the present compilation should include the matter regarding all subjects concerning human life. Apart from these subjects, history should cover all parts of India, moreover, it will be appreciated by the foreign scholars, if a continuous chronology could be decided at least for the last 5000 years i. e., from the date of Harappan culture or in other words from the beginning of the Kali Era which is commonly accepted throughout India.

Long Discontinuity:

Great efforts will be required to compile the above mentioned comprehensive history, There is one difficulty also. Vyasa's compilation of ancient Indian history is known to be the last one. It was compiled, according to the tradition, just after the Mahabharata War. Very less information is available from the date of the Bharata War till the time of Buddha. Some scholars attribute this to natural calamities like earth-quakes, sand-storms, heat and cold waves, etc.. Whatever be the reasons that information is meager. After the Buddha, from the sixth century BC India has faced constant invasions from foreigners. Many of them were barbarous by nature and have destroyed the historical source material. These invasions have continued for thousands of years. it is definitely creditable to India that it defended itself against such powerful invaders who had destroyed empires like the Roman and the Persian. But Indians were not able to devote time for constructive social activities like historiography, possible in peaceful circumstances. This discontinuance is a difficulty which the new compilers will have to face and will have to increase the enormity of their efforts.

Slow Indian Pace:

In spite of the necessity of such enormous efforts, Indian scholars do not seem to have applied themselves to the task to that extent even after independence. Yajnyashalas were discovered in the excavations even before our independence. More than forty years have passed since then. But the corollaries of the archaeological discoveries in the excavations have not found their way into our textbooks. Even today, the curriculum teaches the Aryan race theory, their invasion over India and the separateness of the Harappan culture from the so-called Aryan culture. What is the reason for this slow speed in historiography ?

Speed of Britishers:

As against this, the progress of the Britishers in the study of Indian history was very fast. It may be that the hypothesis assumed by them to fix the chronology of ancient Indian history may not be correct. After all, they were foreigners. Their approach was not rooted in the culture of India. But the energies they applied to this work are praise worthy. They came for trade in the beginning of the seventeenth century. They decided to capture the political power of this land in the second quarter of the eighteenth century. By the first quarter of the nineteenth century they were masters of the whole of India. And by the end of the nineteenth century they had established the Aryan race theory and entire chronology of Indian history. What is the reason for the difference in this speed ?

In comparison with the Britishers, the only reason for slow Indian speed seems to be a lack of national consciousness, pleat and Organization. Before they reached India, the Britishers were a nation of organized patriots and disciplined and devoted individuals. Continuous were their efforts for such an organization from eleventh century onwards. They were able to pool the efforts of individuals who were applying their full capacities and energies to the cause. We know of James Princep who lived only for 39 years. He had devoted some hours everyday for seven years and in the end was successful in deciphering the Brahmi script. Many others like Jones, Pargiter, etc. were similarly active in the field. They had their family and service responsibilities. Inspite of this they were devoting so many man-hours everyday. They used to put down in writing their findings and researches on the basis of which they used to discuss in meetings in an organized way. These discussions and writings put in black and white were preserved. These writings are available today in the issues of the journals of Royal Asiatic Society, etc.. All this is worth not only appreciating but following also, Thanks to them for such an organized execution and preservation.

Vyasa's Organized Work :

Vyasa and his team of devoted scholars also had worked in an organized manner. They had compiled history books after collecting maximum possible data then available in various parts of India. All the data was sorted out into some divisions and each division was allotted to a group of able scholars. This organization worked in a systematic way securing cooperation from various disciplines and arriving at concurrent decisions after sufficient discussions. They were required to put in strenuous efforts spread over a number of years. The books thus compiled got recognition and respect from all over India.

Data Collection:

Collection of historical data is the first necessity for compilation. The necessary source material can be found in many countries apart from India i.e., Bharat of 1947 creation. It is now firmly established that in the first millennium BC, India had close contacts with countries from Greece, in the west up to China in the east. Many scholars are attributing Indian impact even on the ancient Maya and Inca civilizations of America. Data should be collected from all these countries. Maximum information, of course, will be available in India, Pakistan, Bangla Desh, Nepal, Tibet, Burma, Sri Lanka and the south-east Asian countries. All this should be sorted out subjectwise, districtwise and countrywise or according to the Brihaspati Cycles of Kali Era. Subjectwise information will facilitate writing a comprehensive history of all subjects. Disrictwise information will be useful for presenting an all India picture of history and the cyclewise information can be used to set up a continuous chronology acceptable to all, at least for some thousands of years. Whatever data is available should all be collected.

Data Collectors:

Data collection, though a must for history writing, is a time consuming and very tedious work. It will be properly done by those who are interested in that, who take it as their duty towards the nation and who are convinced that this work will be useful for humanity. Those who work only for remuneration will not be able to collect ample and correct data in a stipulated time. It may not be trustworthy also. A large number of such devoted persons will be required as the data for all the subjects and all the districts is to be collected. A proper plan should be drawn and the work should be organized on all India level. It will be a centrally planned scheme working under a big organization. The nature of the work will select the proper individuals just like a plant collects the useful matter for its growth from the soil and nature. Progress will be possible only when such persons are selected. The data collectors will have to work without a bias in their minds about the date of an event or its version. Their work is to collect all the available material. By collection of sufficient data the question about the date or version of an event will also be solved. For example, there are two dates for the birth of Adi Shankara, one in the sixth century BC and the other in the eighth century AD. With the progress in work, when sufficient information about many subjects or events of those two centuries becomes available, then, on the basis of contemporaneity of the events, the collected information will facilitate the decision of the date of Adi Shankara.

Seers will Bloom:

Thus, conviction of the utility of this work for his nation and humanity, sense of duty towards it and doing unbiased collection are the primary qualities of an individual who is to work in this history project. Many other qualities are also needed, just like knowledge of different scripts, mobility, knowledge of languages, finance, etc. But all these are secondary. Even the literary abilities come afterwards. Of course those are essential for final compilation but for such able persons also, the necessity of primary qualities stands. The primary qualities are those of heart and due to these, the organization will be a live organization. The life in the organization will collect the necessary individuals of varying capacities required for its growth. In course of time, when it is opportune, it will be able to project individuals like our seers of the past having intellectual acumen, proper judgment, literary qualities and sense of working as a part of the organization. It is they who will write properly the history books according to the Hindu historiography suitable to the present day world.
















LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

Bharateeya Itihas Sankalan Samithi, Hyderabad.

Price

1. Bharateeya Itihas Mala,

(Rajneitic Khand) Bhag I Hindi Rs. 15- 00

Translated into Telugu, English,

Marathi, Gujarathi, Assamese,

Kannada and Tamil. Rs. 20-00 each.

2. Bharateeya Historiography Rs. 5-00

Translated into Hindi, Telugu,

Kannada, Tamil, Marathi.

3. Aryan Invasion-A Myth Rs. 75-00

4. The Dates of The Buddha, Deluxe Rs. 75-00

English. Ordinary Rs. 30-00

5. History of Hyderabad District

English Vol. I Rs. 50-00

6. Hindi Jagaran Abhishap Ya Vardan, Rs. 80-00

Translated into Telugu, Marathi, Kannada, Gujarathi.

7. Sarasvati Shodh, Hindi. Rs. 5-00

8. Vedic Astronomy, English Rs. 50-00

9. Bharateey Yudha Astronomical Rs. 12-00

References, English

10. Yug Yuqeen Kashi, Hindi Rs. 100-00

11. Date of Mahabharata War English Rs. 5-00

-The Problem.

12. Bharateeya Kalganana ki Roop Rekha,

Hindi Rs. 15 - 00

Under Print

1. Aryans Who Were They (English).

2. Hindu Renaissance-Curse or Boon (English).

First Edition, 1988

Second Edition, 1991

Copies : 1200

Books are available at

1. Apte Smarak Bhavan Mahal, Nagpur-440 002.

2. Sahitya Niketan 3-4-852, Barakatpura, Hyderabad-500 027.

3. 528-C, Shanivarpet Pune-411 030.

4. Suruchi Sahitya Zandewala, Deshbandhu Gupta Marg, New Delhi-110 055.

5. Bharateeya Ithas Sankalan Samithi 14/3 RT, L I G H Barakatpura, Hyderabad-500 027.

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