This monograph is published
with an object in mind. Shri Sriram Sathe, Organiser, Bharateeya
Itihasa Sankalana Yojana, south and west India, gave lectures
in a number of universities and colleges regarding the assessment
of chronology of ancient Indian history and historiography. There
was much appreciation of his views. The experience prompted us
to take up this project. The Samiti asked Shri Sathe to prepare
a monograph of the subject of his lectures. We are thankful to
him that he gladly accepted our request and gave us the manuscript.
By publishing this monograph,
we want to open a discussion among a wider circle. There will
be additions to, and differences of opinion about this monograph.
We want to compile the various viewpoints regarding the historiography
that this ancient culture should follow and publish those views
under the names of the writers. The Samiti requests the readers
to help this project by sending their viewpoints to our address
The Ramayana, the Mahabharata
and the Puranas are, according to the tradition, the history
books of ancient Indian history. The tradition was unanimously
in vogue till the end of the 18th century, when Sir William Jones,
a pioneer among the British scholars, started to study ancient
Indian history from the Bhagavata Purana. Prior to that, it was
ordained for the kings and the administrators to devote some time
everyday to study this history. Even the rishis used to
read it. Inference can be drawn from this, that in those days,
the science of historiography must have advanced to such an extent
that it had created confidence among the scholars about its effectivity
to develop ordinary men into those with capital M. Personalities
like Shivaji were the products of the developed historiography.
History used to be studied along with the Vedic literature.
It had a place in the educational curriculum,
What place do these history
books have in the present Indian social set up ? These books are
not included in the history curriculum since a hundred years or
more, Even after independence many scholars do not accept these
as history books. But there are some institutions and individuals
who, out of conviction about their utility, are voluntarily educating
the public through these books. And in spite of their disappearance
for more than a hundred years, from the educational field, these
books are commanding respect in the hearts of millions of Indians.
In the present curriculum,
the ancient Indian history written on the lines of Western historiography,
starts from the destroyed Harappan civilization of 2500 BC, It
is undecided to whom that civilization belonged. Then come the
Aryan invasion over India in 1500 BC, the Vedas in 1200 BC and
the Nirvana of Buddha in 483 BC. This chronology and the
Western historiography had, then, impressed the scholars many
of whom, in great enthusiasm of the new faith, might have discarded
the Indian historiography. But now the times have changed. Historians
are required to write the history of still ancient millenniums.
Hence the Western historiography itself is undergoing a change.
They are taking resort, not only to mythologies but also to the
oral achieves like folk-tales, etc. Moreover, the recent researches
have proved the Aryan invasion as fake, the date of the Vedas
incorrect and the date of Buddha undecided.
In such circumstances, and
specially when Indians have become independent and are to mold
their own future, it is necessary to pause and consider the course
we should adopt for our historiography. This monograph is a small
effort in that direction.
Dates of the Bharata War:
Chronology in ancient history
has always been a baffling problem. it is more so in the case
of ancient Indian history. It is understandable. lndia's antiquity
is remoter than that of many other nations in the world. Historians
have found it difficult to decide which event is historical and
which mythical. Many Western scholars considered the Mahabharata
War a myth. But many Indian and other scholars, who have their
own valid reasons think otherwise. This is obvious from books
like Mahabharata War; Myth or Reality ; Differing Views, and Age
of Bharata War published recently,
Prior to the entry of Western
scholars into the field of indology, there was no confusion on
the date of the Bharata War. It was accepted as having taken
place 36 years before the beginning of Kaliyuga, which is in its
5092nd year in November 1990. But with the advent of Western
scholars and the acceptance of their theories, many scholars have
started working on the date of the War. In the book Search for
the Year of Bharata War, one peruses the views of 120 scholars,
who have opened that the date may be from the 60th century BC
to 12th century BC The source material used by these scholars
is mostly literary as no archaeological evidence is available.
It is said that astronomical references are very often useful
to decide the dates of such past events. But the scholars who
have used these references have also differed and their date varies
from 60th century BC to 12th century BC.
Dates of the Buddha:
The historicity of Buddha
is accepted by all. But there is no unanimity of the date. In
Sri Lanka, 483 BC is accepted as the date of his nirvana while
in Burma 544 BC is accepted. In Tibet it is believed to be 835
BC, while in China, 11th century BC is the accepted date. Buddha
was an Indian and the Indian Puranic tradition believes that the
nirvana took place in 1793 or 1807 BC However, in the educational
institutions, the chronology prepared by the British scholars
is taught and according to them, the Ceylonese date i.e., 483
B. C is the date of nirvana. But in 1956 AD, the 2500th
anniversary of the Mahanirvana was celebrated in India
which means that the Burmese date was given recognition. One
date is taught in educational institutions and functions are celebrated
according to another date. It is said that the Burmese initiated
the idea and funded the publications and a part of the celebrations.
Is it not funny to note that historical dates change according
to the availability of funds ? it is a pity that no body questioned
why the functions were celebrated on a different date. Differences
of opinion exist even on the date of Adi Shankara and strangely
these differences do not prick the Indians.
Study of the Puranas -
Western scholars who began
their study of the Indian history in the 18th and 19th centuries,
found dates of events given therein very confusing. The ancient
Indian history is recorded in the epics the Ramayana and the Mahabharata
and the Puranas and it extends to thousands of years in the past.
The Asiatic Society established in 1784 AD in Bengal by Sir William
Jones, a Judge in the British East India Company, aimed at a proper
study of the history, the arts, sciences and literature of Asia.
Jones learnt from his Sanskrit teacher Radhakant that Bhagavata
Purana states a high antiquity for the Creation, the last of the
seven Manus (out of a total of fourteen), the Vaivaswata Manu
has started tens of thousands of years ago and the Mahabharata
War, an important event In Indian history, took place some 3000
years before Christ. The Bhagavata Purana also gives the accounts
of various kings, their dynasties and kingdoms which flourished
during the Kaliyuga. This information enabled Jones to publish
in 1768 AD, a continuous lineage of the Magadha kings for 25 centuries
from the Bharata War i.e., from 3101 BC to 452 BC That was the
beginning of the study of ancient Indian chronology by Western
Indian Historiography Misunderstood:
It is most essential and useful
to understand the history of fixation of ancient Indian chronology
by the British scholars. Their notions of history writing were
different from those of the Indians. Chronology is a must for
historiography according to them. They could not understand
why the Indian historiographers did not mention the dates of even
important events in ancient Indian history, in spite of their
definite knowledge about them. Some of them wrongly attributed
this to the lack of historical sense in Indian Seers (ancient
scholars) and missed the right path to understand the Indian historiography.
Once on a wrong path, they became a prey to their self-posed
conjectures and prepared a chronology based on those baseless
ones. India, the area of which was many times that of their motherland
England, was by that time captured and ruled by them. The success
created in them a superiority complex. It not only prohibited
them from understanding Indian historiography but also forced
the chronology thus prepared by them to be taught in the Indian
educational institutions. Today, even after more than forty years
of independence, the same chronology is being taught in our country.
But the modern scientific researches have proved that chronology
to be incorrect and an atmosphere for its reassessment prevails
among the Indian scholars now. Let us try to understand the history
of fixation of this chronology.
Sir William Jones could not
believe in the antiquity of the Bharata War because of his Christian
faith which told him that Creation took place at 9-00 a. m, on
23rd October 4004 BC Similar were the impressions of other Britishers.
They did not believe in the veracity of Indian history books.
Their bias prohibited the Christians from accepting the antiquity
of the Indian nation. Arthur A. McDonnell wrote, "Early
India wrote no history because it never made any. The ancient
Indians never went through a struggle for life like the Greeks,
the Persians and the Romans. Secondly, the Brahmanas early embraced
the doctrine that all action and existence are a positive evil
and could therefore have felt but little inclination to chronicle
historical events." All these Britishers looked from their
own glasses. Their nation came into being after struggle for
life and when they first got the rule of a single political power.
Later, they propagated that India is a nation in making since
the advent of the Britishers and their establishing a single political
rule in this country.
Jones was not satisfied with
the Indian sources. He tried to search the Greek and Roman accounts.
These accounts supplied some information about India of the time
of the Macedonian king Alexander. It mentioned seven names of
three successive Indian kings. Attributing one name each for
the three kings the names are Xandrammes, Sandrokottas and Sandrocyptus.
Xandrammes of the previous dynasty was murdered by Sandrokottas
whose son was Sandrocyptus. Jones picked up one of these three
names, namely, Sandrokottas and found that it had a sort of phonetic
similarity with the name Chandragupta of the Puranic accounts.
According to the Greek accounts, Palibothra was the capital of
Sandrokottas. Jones took Palibothra as a Greek pronunciation
of Pataliputra, the Indian city and capital of Chandragupta.
He, then, declared on 28-2-1793 that Sandrokottas of the Greek
accounts is Chandragupta Maurya of the Puranas. Jones died on
27-4-1794, just a year after this declaration and possibly before
his death, could not know that Puranas have another Chandragupta
of the Gupta dynasty.
Later scholars took this identity
of Sandrokottas with Chandragupta Maurya as proved and carried
on further research. James Princep, an employee of the East India
Company, deciphered the Brahmi script and was able to read the
inscriptions of Piyadassana. Turnour, another employee of the
Company in Ceylon, found in the Ceylonese chronicles that Piyadassana
was used as a surname of Asoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya.
The inscription bearing the name of Asoka was not found till
the time of Turnour. In 1838, Princep found five names of the
Yona kings in Asoka's inscriptions and identified them as the
five Greek kings near Greece belonging to third century BC who
were contemporary to Asoka.
In the Greek accounts, Sandrokottas
of Palibothra is described as a contemporary of Alexander of Macedonia
who invaded India during 327 BC to 323 BC This decides the approximate
date of Chandragupta Maurya. Princep's research decides the approximate
date of Asoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya as in 3rd century
BC Both these dates were adjusted with the reign periods of the
three successive Magadha kings, Chandragupta, Bindusara and Asoka
of the Maurya dynasty given in the Puranas. Thus, the date c.
320 BC was fixed as the date of coronation of Chandragupta Maurya.
Max Mueller, in 1859 AD, finalized this identity of Sandrokottas
with Chandragupta Maurya and declared c. 320 BC, the date of coronation
of Chandragupta Maurya as the Sheet Anchor of Indian history.
M. Troyer did not agree with this conclusion and noted this fact
in the introduction to his translation of Rajatarangani of
Kalhana. He even communicated his views to Prof. Max Mueller
in a letter but did not receive a reply from him.
Historian V. A. Smith took
the chronological identity asserted by the predecessors in this
historical hierarchy as the basis for further calculation of the
exact dates of the different dynasties that ruled over Magadha
after and before the Mauryas. He took the aid of numismatics
in addition to epigraphy. He could not however get over, as if
by compunction, to follow the Puranas in the enumeration of the
kings and their dynasties. But he reduced their reign periods.
The total reduction done by these British scholars, from Jones
to Smith, comes to 1300 years according to some Indian chronologists.
Smith's chronology has come to stay and is being taught till
today in India. The Ceylonese date of the Buddha, which is nearest
to the present times, has been accepted as a part of Smith's chronology
though there are many other valid dates in different countries
as already seen. Not only the date of the Buddha, but
also the dates in ancient Indian history regarding the writers,
scientists and treatises are decided on the basis of this Sheet
Anchor which is accepted as final decision.
Aryan Race Theory:
In 1850s, the theory of Aryan
invasion in India was built up by English administrators, scholars
and missionaries like Lathani, Dr. Chevers and Reverend John Wilson.
The theory has dominated the research in ancient Indian chronology.
This theory had its origin in the findings of one Italian trader,
Philippo Sasetti, He came to India at the end of the 16th century
and found a sort of similarity between some English and Sanskrit
words, like father-Pitru, mother-Matru, etc. Sir
William Jones 200 years later, in 1788 AD, made a statement that
Sanskrit, Latin and Greek must have been the offspring of some
unknown common language which might have ceased to exist. The
language and the speakers of this unknown extinct common language
were called Aryan and many conjectures were made about their original
habitat. It was said that they might have lived somewhere in
Central Eurasia i.e., from Germany to South Russia. They were
described as having fair features and white skin. They were also
portrayed as having conquering capacities.
Max Mueller dated the first
Aryan invasion, of India in 1500 BC, which was just a conjecture.
According to him, the Buddhist religion was a reaction to the
Brahmanical one i.e., Vedic. The Western scholars had arrived
at 483 BC , as the date of Buddha nirvana. Hence the Vedic
literature consisting of Samhita, Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanishads
and the epics must have been compiled just before the fifth century
BC, the date of the Buddha. According to him, the language of
these four types of literature is different and for the development
of the language at each stage must have taken about 200 years.
Thus, he decided that the first type, the Samhita literature
(like Rigveda) must have been compiled in 1200 BC.
Max Muellers's Christian
The critics of Max Mueller
like BC Goldstucker, said that the hypothesis of Max Mueller about
the 200 years required for the change of the Vedic language
at each stage is based on his faith in the Biblical date
of Creation in 4004 BC Dr. Haugh gave the period for the change
in Vedic language as 500 years and Dr. Winternitz accepted it
as 1000 years. H. H. Wilson, W. D. Whitney and Barthelemeo St.
Hillare severely criticized the conjectures of Max Mueller and
his date 1500 BC for Aryan invasion. But in spite of this, a
majority of the scholars in the West have acted on the dogma that
Max Mueller has proved the date 1500 BC for the Aryan invasion
on India. Not only the date but the direction of the flow of
civilization is accepted from the north-west of India to its southern
and eastern limits.
Conjectures after the Harappa
Whatever might be the merits
and demerits of this Aryan invasion theory, it was accepted by
a large number of scholars by the end of the 19th century. Next
came the excavations at Mohenjodaro and Harappa (1922 AD). The
well developed urban civilization was dated as belonging to some
period between 3000 BC to 2500 BC. Because of the proximity of
the Indus river, it was named Indus or Sindhu civilization. The
date of this civilization went prior to that of Aryan invasion
date i.e., 1500 BC and hence it was regarded to be different from
the Aryan civilization. Thus, the presently taught chronology
of ancient Indian history began from Indus civilization 2500 BC
Then came the Aryan invasion in 1500 BC, the Vedas in 1200 BC,
the Nirvana of the Buddha in 433 BC and the coronation
of Chandragupta Maurya in c. 320 BC These are the main props on
which the present ancient Indian chronology stands.
Harappan, the only Scientific
Of the props i.e., the dates
described in the previous section, only the Harappan date i.e.,
the date of the destruction of the so-called Indus civilization
has been arrived at after scientific tests. For the other dates,
no scientific proof is available. On the other hand, the recent
research has substantially proved the incorrectness of these dates.
Further, it has challenged the very veracity of the meaningless
and unscientific theories like the existence of the Aryan race,
their invasion on India and their civilization being distinct
from that of the Indus people or that of the Dravidians. Let
us analyze the results of the modern scientific research.
Yajnyashalas in Harappan
Yajnyashalas have been discovered
in Harappan sites from Baluchistan in the west up to Uttar Pradesh
in the east and Gujrat in the south. This has helped Dr. Ahmed
Hasan Dani, a Pakistani archaeologist, to state that the whole
of this area must have been under one culture in which Yajnyashalas
had a place. Yajnyashala is a special characteristic feature
of Vedic culture. So, Vedas and Vedic culture must have been
there in that vast portion of India in pre-Harappan times. Therefore,
the theory that Aryan and Harappan cultures are separate fails
to prove itself. Even the theory that the original home of the
Aryans was in Central Eurasia also fails and the Aryan invasion
and its date carry no meaning.
Dried Sarasvati Bed from
Another scientific research
has also proved the same thing. The American satellite Landsat
has sent certain photographs of India. The analysis of these,
by the scientists of the Ahmedabad Space Research Center revealed
the dried bed of a big river from the Shivalik mountains near
Simla up to the Ran of Kuchh. Earlier, the rivers Yamuna and
Sutlej were flowing into that river. The scientists found the
width of that river at some places to be six kilometers.
In the Vedas, there are references to such a big river. It
was called the Naditama i.e., the biggest river. Sarasvati
must be the name of that river, according to Ahmedabad scientists.
Prior to these findings of
the scientists of the Ahmedabad Space Research Center, many other
scholars had also come to the same conclusion. Sri N. N. Godbole,
an officer of the Rajasthan Government, had chemically analyzed
the waters of the wells in this tract and found them to be the
same ; while the waters of the wells just a few furlongs away
from the tract gave a different chemical composition. Research
scholars have also found a thick bed of alluvial soil under the
sand bed of Rajasthan proving that some big river was flowing
there for a number of years and the alluvial soil got accumulated
because of it. The photographs of the American satellite have
positively confirmed the conclusion of the earlier scholars.
The position of the dried bed of the river is now accepted by
a greater number of scholars.
Why Same Date for 260 Harappan
Sites ? Sarasvati Culture:
Nearly 260 sites are now considered
as belonging to the Indus or Harappan civilization. There are
other sites termed pre-Harappan and late-'Harappan and all the
three total to 1000. The Harappan sites have the same date of
destruction, Scholars were at a loss to understand why all these
sites spread over a vast area were destroyed at the same time.
Excavations have revealed that these sites were destroyed by natural
calamities. What the calamities were nobody knows. The Indus
river, after which these sites were named still flows ; perhaps
pointing out that it has nothing to do with the destruction of
these sites. Of the 260 sites, only about 20 are to the west
of the Indus and the rest are on the eastern side. Any culture
named after a river will thrive on both the banks of the river.
in the beginning, when only Mohenjodaro and Harappa were known,
the scholars might have named the civilization after the river
Indus because of its proximity to these sites. But now
scholars are doubting about the nomenclature. When we look at
the dried bed of the river Sarasvati as pictured by the Landsat
imagery, the sites which were supposed to be part of Indus civilization,
would be on either of the banks of the river Sarasvati.
Hence Indus civilization has to be renamed as Sarasvati civilization.
Dr. B. B. Lal, Dr. S. P. Gupta and Dr. Shashi Asthana in their
article 'Indus Sites', say, "The Indus civilization was the
culmination of a long process of cultural configuration that was
going on through several millennia in the geographical tract between
the hills of Baluchistan and the Ghaggar basin. The culmination
or the change from the early Harappan to Harappan seems to have
taken place in the Sarasvati basin. The distribution map of Harappan
sites shows quite clearly the concentration of Indus sites with
early Harappan material overlaid with mature Harappan in the basin
of Sarasvati and its tributaries". It is for this reason,
that Dr. S. P. Gupta suggests that instead of persisting with
the older title, Indus civilization, we might as well call it
Ghosh and Hussain of the Central
Arid Zone Research Institute, Jodhpur have discovered a number
of beds of Sarasvati river in which one is of ocean going Sarasvati.
Other beds they have dated 1800 BC and the ocean going Sarasvati
bed is thousands of years earlier than those, according to them.
The Sarasvati civilization
had flourished for thousands of years over a vast area and abundant
waters of the river, were helping the civilization in every way.
But the drying up of the river, which was a natural calamity,
forced the sites to be vacated.
Date of the Vedas Prior
to the Date of Harappa:
The drying up of the Sarasvati
river must have taken place some centuries earlier to the scientifically
decided date of the destruction of Harrappan culture i.e., 2500
BC. This date can be termed as the terminal point of the prosperous
Sarasvati culture. The Vedas contain one sukta having
so many verses about the river Sarasvati. Thus, the date of the
Vedas i.e., the so-called Aryan culture goes earlier to the date
of the Harrappan culture and not, after it, as some Western scholars
supposed without any basis. The chronology based on this supposition
is proved to be incorrect. The two modern discoveries, one that
of the yajnyashalas in Harappan sites and the other of the dried
track of river Sarasvati have falsified the date and theory of
Aryan invasion and the separateness of the Aryan and, the Harappan
Aryan Race, a Biased Theory:
The Aryan race theory has
very much disturbed the chronology of, and approach to the ancient
Indian history. As already seen, its origin is in the similarity
in words of different languages. It is reasonable to infer that
there must have been one group of men in one place speaking the
original language and the words must have spread elsewhere along
with these men. But the search carried out only in Central Eurasia
for this original place smells something else. The word Arya,
appears in the Vedic literature, the most ancient in the world.
Vedas are universally accepted as belonging to the so-called
lndo-Aryans of Sarasvati area. Scholars like Max Mueller and
Jones did have this knowledge. It is difficult to understand
why the original home of the Aryans, in spite of this knowledge,
was not searched in the land of Sarasvati. Moreover, the search
was done in a place where there are very few rivers. It is a-
generally accepted that in the beginning, man had his habitations
on the banks of rivers. Why then the search in a riverless place
? Is it because the land of Sarasvati belonged to Hindus who were
a defeated nation then, from previous eight centuries ? Or is
it because many of the European nations were then, a conquering
people since the previous two or three centuries and the conquerors
ego prompted them to search for the original home of the Aryans
somewhere near to their countries?
Nancy Stephen Opines Concoction:
Nancy Stephen in her recently
published book 'The Ideas of Race in Science' has charged these
race scientists with deliberate concoction. The book reviewer
Dr. S. K. Mahajan of BARC Bombay writes, "Beginning with
the 15th century, the white Europeans came in contact with more
and more people around the globe, most of whom looked physically
different, thanks so their superior military technology, the Europeans
soon found themselves exterminating, enslaving or subjugating
many of these people. All this was profitable, though morally
difficult to justify. A morally defensible rationale for slavery
and colonialism would have been highly useful. Such were the
imperatives that led to the genesis, around the year 1800, of
what Nancy calls 'the race science', in her book. The basic hypothesis
of this science was something as follows".
"Based on their biological
constitutions, human beings can be classified in to a small number
of well defined racial types. These racial types are fixed and
can be arranged in a hierarchy in which the European whites are
at the top and the African blacks at the bottom, with others coming
in between. The physical, moral and mental worth of any individual
is determined by the hierarchical status of the racial type to
which he belongs".
"The primary goal
of the race scientists was to generate empirical data as well
as a theoretical framework in support of the above hypothesis.
This they did with remarkable zeal, diligence and persistence
for well over a century in the face of formidable practical as
well as theoretical set-backs. Their purpose was to show that
the white man was endowed with superior mental and moral attributes
which were necessary for humanity's progress but were missing
in non-whites and then the European domination could be rationalized
as the "White man's burden". In spite of the great labors
of the race scientists, their work has mostly been forgotten.
The emergence of molecular biology of the gene has proved differently".
Crave for Civilized Ancestry:
were created during the past two millennia. Prior to achieving
nationhood, they were fighting wild tribes. After their successes
in conquering different countries all over the world since the
sixteenth century AD, a crave developed in them to prove their
ancient and civilized ancestry. In the 19th century AD, they
picked the word Arya from the ancient Hindu literature where alone
it means respectable, civilized, superior, elder, etc. Seeta
calls her husband Arya or Aryaputra and similarly does Mandodary,
the wife of Dashanana Ravana. In Rigveda, the word Arya occurs
33 times and 16 times in Atharvaveda. Nowhere it is used to mean
a race. In the Siamese(Indonesia) dictionary, which goes prior
to the birth of the Aryan race theory, the meaning of the word
Arya is given as 'civilized'. Europeans wanted themselves to be
honored by others by this name of ancient fame and they invented
the theory of the Aryan race.
The Europeans declared
themselves belonging to that Aryan race. As the word Arya was
taken from ancient Hindu literature, the Hindus were also required
to be included in that Aryan race of their conjecture. Hindus
were the residents of India. Hence a theory was coined about the
original home of the Aryans in Eurasia between Europe and the
other to have invaded India. One branch of the Aryans was stated
to have gone to Europe and the other to have invaded India. As
the Vedas belong not to the Europeans but to Hindus only, Max
Mueller inferred that those must have been compiled by the Hindus,
the so-called Indo-Aryans, after they reached India. He had already
dated Vedas in 1200 BC. Now he dated the Aryan Invasion in 1500
BC, three hundred years earlier to that of the Vedas.
Childish Corollaries Thrusted:
The crave for
calling themselves Aryans forced the Europeans to propagate childish
corollaries. They were white skinned and possessed particular
facial features. These they thrusted on the Aryans. It had all
started from similar words found in Latin, Greek and Sanskrit.
Max Mueller had pointed out that similar words need not mean that
those who use them should possess similar features, bones or blood
or similar color to their skin. The Aryan race enthusiasts termed
the north Indians (white according to them) as Aryans and the
south Indians (black according to them) as non-Aryans or Dravidians.
Rama and Krishna are revered personalities all over India. Though
they belong to north India they are black. The civilized nature
and good qualities according to Indians, have no connection with
the color of the skin, facial features or the structure of the
body. For example Ashtavakra was a revered rishi, a civilized
person though he had many natural bends in his body. From the
qualities attached to the Aryans, the race theory seems to be
only a conjecture of persons suffering from superiority complex.
Ancient Indian chronology need not depend on it or its invasion
Many foreign invaders and
travelers have written their memoirs about India from the fourth
century BC onwards. The memoirs are available even today. None
of them has any where referred to this Aryan invasion and their
establishment of the Aryan culture in India. This is only a recently
hatched theory having no basis.
Date of the Buddha Undecided:
Max Mueller had fixed the
date of the Vedas on the basis of the Ceylonese date of Buddha
Nirvana which is nearest to the present times. Many Indian
scholars are accepting those dates. But when there are so many
dates of the Buddha current in different countries and there is
no unanimous decision about it, the Indians need not take the
dates given by Max Mueller as decided Ones.
Sheet Anchor on Increase:
The last prop in the Britisher's,
Indian chronology, we have to consider, is the sheet anchor
date. While moving in various universities, the author has experienced
that many Indian scholars have accepted these Britisher's dates
as a final decision. But there are also a large number of Indian
scholars who do not believe in that date and their number is increasing
every year. As already seen, only the Ceylon's date of Buddha
nirvana has fitted in the Britisher's Indian chronology
which is based on the sheet anchor date. As the knowledge of
the different dates to Buddha current in different countries is
spreading, the number of Indians doubting the sheet anchor date
is also increasing.
The sheet anchor is being
challenged since its inception till today. M. Troyer had opposed
it in the beginning. In a seminar held in 1981 AD in Madras, scholars
had challenged the identity.
No Concrete Proofs:
The Western scholars and their
followers in India have been all along insisting on concrete evidence
for ancient Indian chronology but they themselves have not been
able as yet, to furnish any such evidence for the sheet anchor.
All the evidence supplied so far is conjectural. No numismatic
or inscriptional proof is available for the date. Same
was the condition at the time of V. A. Smith. He had written,
"Unfortunately, no monuments have been discovered which can
be referred with certainty to tile period of Chandragupta Maurya
and the archaeologist is unable to bring any tangible evidence
afforded by excavations."
According to the Greek accounts,
Xandrammes was deposed by Sandrokottas and Sandrocyptus was the
son of Sandrokottas. In the case of Chandragupta Maurya, he had
opposed Dhanananda of the Nanda dynasty and the name of his son
was Bindusara. Both these names, Dhanananda and Bindusara, have
no phonetic similarity with the names Xandrammes and Sandrocyptus
of the Greek accounts.
In the Greek accounts, we
find the statements of the Greek and Roman writers belonging to
the period from 4th century BC to 2nd century AD None of them
have mentioned the names of Kautilya or Asoka. Kautilya's work
on polity is an important document of lndia's mastery on this
subject. It was with his assistance that Chandragupta had come
to the throne. Asoka's empire was bigger than that of Chandragupta
and he had sent missionaries to the so-called Yavana countries.
But both of them are not mentioned. Colebrook has pointed out
that the Greek writers did not say anything about the Buddhist
Bhikkus though that was the flourishing religion of that time
with the royal patronage of Asoka. Roychaudhari also wonders
why the Greek accounts are silent on Buddhism.
The empire of Chandragupta
was known as Magadha empire. It had a long history even
at the time of Chandragupta Maurya. In Indian literature, this
powerful empire is amply described by this name but it is absent
in the Greek accounts. It is difficult to understand
as to why Megasthanese did not use this name and instead used
the word Prassi which has no equivalent or counterpart in Indian
accounts. To decide as to whether Pataliputra was the capital
of the Mauryas, Puranas is the only source. Puranas inform us
that all the eight dynasties that ruled Magadha after the Mahabharata
War had Girivraja as their capital. Mauryas are listed as one
of the eight dynasties. The name Pataliputra is not even hinted
at, anywhere in the Puranas.
Pandit Bhagavaddatta seems
to have studied the fragments of Megasthenes in more detail than
those who decided the identity. On the basis of Megasthenes's
statements, he has arrived at the following conclusions. "Yamuna
was flowing through Palibotha i.e., Paribhadra, the capital of
the Prassi kingdom. Palibothra was 200 miles from Prayaga on
way to Mathura. The kshatriyas there were known as Prabhadrakas
or Paribhadrakas. Their king was Chandraketu. The capital Paribhadra
was near to Sindhu-Pulinda which is in Madhya Desha and is today
termed as Kali-Sindha. The Karusha Sarovara was between Sindhu-Pulinda
and Prayaga." He further states, "Pataliputra cannot
be written as Palibothra in Greek because 'P', in Patali is written
in Greek as English 'P', only ; then why 'P', in Putra is changed
to 'B', in Greek? There is no instance where Sanskrit 'P', is
changed to Greek 'B'." Putra cannot be Bothra.
All such criticisms and questions
which were advanced against the identification and the sheet anchor
from its inception onwards remained unanswered. Max Mueller had
not answered Troyer. The Britishers might have continued the
same approach till India became independent. But why are the
questions not answered after lndia's independence ? Is it due
to sheer inertia as Dr. R. C. Mujumdar had termed it ?
Acceptance of Antiquity
by Later Britishers:
Though in the beginning of
their Oriental studies, some Britishers did not believe in the
antiquity of the Indian history and the veracity of Indian historical
literature, we find a change in their later attitude. Max Mueller
himself, in the year 1890 AD, accepted the antiquity of Indian
history by declaring that it is difficult to decide the antiquity
of Rigveda. H. H. Wilson had observed that a very great portion
of the Puranas is genuine. V. A. Smith admitted the most systematic
record of the Indian historical tradition is that preserved in
the dynastic lists of the Puranas. Some recent scientific researches,
as we have seen already, have also proved the antiquity. Here
are some more examples.
Antiquity with Prosperity:
Ramapithacus, a fossil of
man's jaw bone, found in Sarasvati river area is dated lakhs of
years before present (BP). Dr. V. S. Wakankar was very famous
for his researches in rock paintings. An American scholar working
under him dated the rock paintings in Madhya Pradesh as belonging
to 35000 years BP. Dr. E. A. V. Prasad of Sri Venkateswara University,
Tirupathi studied and wrote a book, 'Underground water in Varahamihir's
Brihatsamhita'. On the basis of this knowledge, he was able to
spot thirty places in the drought effected Saurashtra (Gujrat)
in June 1988, where the modern water diviners had failed and where,
after drilling, they found water at the depth he had predicted.
The date of Varahamihira is in fifth century AD In his treatise,
Brihatsamhita, he has written that he had secured the ancient
books written by Manu, Baladeva and Saraswata Muni to write his
treatise. There are many more examples like this.
Continuous Hindu Social
When it is said that Bharat
has great antiquity, it means that it has maintained its special
characteristics as a society, a culture or a nation since that
ancient past till today. In case of civilizations which are said
to be dead, their land is still there and the same blood is flowing
in the veins of those who are residing there but they have lost
their specialty or special characteristics as a culture or a nation
which differentiated them from other nations. The culture, the
nationality of Bharat is still alive from the past thousands of
years. Bharat can be said to have mastered the science or art
of maintaining its special characteristic as a nation. The same
can be said about other sciences also. Let us see what Bharat
had achieved in the science of historiography.
Dates Noted but Not Stated:
According to the European
notion of historiography, dates are a must. Similar is the impression
of many of the Indians influenced by the abilities of the Britishers.
We shall try to understand the notion of the Indian historiographers.
Let us consider the dates
of the Buddha as he is unanimously accepted as a historical figure.
The first convention of the Buddhists took place in the year
of his nirvana. In that convention, his teachings
were compiled and recorded but not his date. It is not that they
did not know the date but they did not feel the necessity of putting
it down in writing. The second Buddhists convention took place
in the reign of Asoka the Great. Then also the date was not put
in writing. It is said to be just 200 years after the nirvana.
The all powerful monarch could easily have secured the date
if he had desired, may be that he had the knowledge of it. Not
that he had not written down only the Buddha's date, nowhere
in his inscriptions he has given the date of his coronation
also. Perhaps he did not feel of giving those dates.
Similar is the case of Vyasa
who wrote the epic Mahabharata . He was present when the
war took Place. He had full knowledge of the date. What can
be the reason for not stating the date ? The epic contains about
one lakh Stanzas. He has given so many minute details regarding
the astronomical positions of the different events in the War.
It cannot be that he did not note down the date of the War because
of inertia or carelessness. It will be a grave charge. Similar
is the position regarding the date of the Buddha. What can be
the reason for not stating the dates?
The epics Ramayana and Mahabharata
and the Puranas are the history books of Hindus depicting their
ancient history. Genealogical lists of kings of different dynasties
and kingdoms are mentioned there in. In case of some kingdoms,
the reign periods of different dynasties and their kings in succession
are given. The interval between some two events is also stated
therein to check the calculations. Using all this material, it
is easy to calculate the chronology or the dates of different
events if the date of any one event during all these long years
is fixed in some way. V. A. Smith used the sheet anchor date,
c. 320 BC and using the Puranic genealogy had prepared the chronology.
Some Indian Scholars used the beginning year of Kaliyuga as the
basic year and prepared it.
In spite of such details, there are found different versions in the different Puranas regarding the succession of the kings and their reign periods. In some places, a single king is stated to have ruled for thousands of years. In view of this, an attempt was made some centuries ago in the form of 'Kaliyug, Raja Vrittanta', to study critically the accounts of the dynasties of the Kali Era given in the Puranas, to detect and amend the errors due to ignorant scribes, misreading and misinterpretations and to evolve an authoritative and valued account of the dynasties and the kings, based on maximum agreement among the varying texts of the various Puranas. In this Sanskrit treatise, a connected and consistent account of the Indian chronology from the beginning of Kaliyuga down to the eighth century AD has been given in detail.
the history of Kashmir written by Kalhana in 1178 AD. He used
the records of twelve ancient chronicles and the inscriptions
of grants of the old kings. From this, he sifted the evidence
available at his disposal with great care, caution and patience
and arrived at the correct historical material. According to
the historian V. A. Smith, Rajatarangini comes nearest to the
European notion of a regular history. Many other genealogies
like that of Nepal, the Trigarta, etc. are also useful for ancient
Indian chronology. Apart from the genealogies of the kings, lists
of successive heads of different sects along with the working
period of each of them (like the Shankara Peethas) in succession
are also available and useful.
History not Only Popular
but Also Revered:
In the massive Indian historical
literature, very few books came nearer to the European notion
of regular history. But this literature, which is available in
all Indian languages and even in dialects, is accepted as their
history by all Indians since last thousands of years. It is quite
popular and is recited on and often. It is so much revered that
some Indians worship it. And this is going on since a very long
time, longer than the life-span of the European nations. Indian
notions of historiography are far different than those of the
Europeans. As in the case of every other discipline, regarding
historiography also, Indian seers invariably adopted an integrated
Aimed to Culture Individual
Indian historical literature
was composed with a definite object. Ancient Hindu seers wanted
the history books to impress the minds of individuals in such
a way that they would develop a balanced approach towards life
and achieve the four Purusharthas Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha
during their life time. (The report of the past in the form
of stories is called 'Itihas' history). It is an advice
(to the individual) to achieve the Purusharthas, Dharma, Artha,
Kama and Moksha.)
Their studies and long experience
had convinced that the behavior of individuals of such a balanced
mental frame in a society creates peace, prosperity, happiness
and longevity in it. Seers had a conviction that events and anecdotes
of history and the morals derived from them were more effective
in molding the minds of the individuals than were the continuous
dates of events and the names of the authors. That is why one
finds a number of side stories introduced in the main story of
the Mahabharata. It Is not a defect but a useful characteristic
of the epic. That is the Indian way of history writing. It was
done with a definite purpose.
It is generally agreed by
many modern scholars that the presently available recensions of
the epics and the Puranas were compiled around the beginning of
the Christian Era. Traditionally the date goes to the beginning
of the Kali Era. Accepting the views of the modern scholars,
though two thousand years have passed since their completion and
though there has been a vast change in the circumstances, those
recensions are still found to be very useful and effective in
cultivating the minds of the Hindus. Mahatma Gandhi wanted Ramarajya
after independence. Many isms had cropped up by that time and
the countries following them were quite prosperous also. Yet
he favored Ramarajya of Rama's time. Such an everlasting influence
do the Indian history books possess.
Studies and Organized Efforts:
Ancient Hindu seers had seriously, deeply and selflessly studied individual human psychology, the social psychology and the relation between man and nature. On the basis of this, they had decided the psychological approach an individual should have towards the rest. Long-standing, peaceful, prosperous and happy human society was their aim.
For this, they
took great pains and worked selflessly in an organized way. These
Hindu seers were scholars well versed in their subjects, every
ounce of whose energy was spent for the well being of mankind
and who were honored both by the rulers and the ruled. It is
difficult to get individuals respected by both the rulers and
the ruled. But, India, in ancient times, had them in plenty.
Such seers had the practice of conferring together from time
to time. The Naimisharanya conference of such scholars is said
to have continued for twelve years. Smritis, history books and
such other literature useful for the society was prepared by
organized effort. It used to be an all India effort. The original
books were not only written in different scripts but were also
translated in many languages of India and the neighboring countries.
And these are revered everywhere.
Generations of Devoted
The Hindu Seers were
not satisfied with mere compiling of history books. That alone
would not fulfill their aim. They wanted the written matter to
reach every individual, literate or illiterate and produce the
desired effect on him. Reciters or Sutas were intended
for the task. India is a vast country, having a large population
and speaking a number of languages. The number of reciters required
also must be in that proportion. Moreover, these reciters would
have to narrate the history time and time again according to the
convenience of the villager and also the forest dwellers and this
is to continue for thousands of years. Hence generations after
generations of reciters were trained to narrate history skillfully
and effectively in various languages of this vast country. These
sutas considered it their sacred duty and life-time mission
to be wandering minstrels all their life, whatever be the odds
they were required to face. They had conviction that whatever
is written in these books is the history of this nation. it is
most useful to the society and hence, they deemed it their duty
to devote their lives to deliver it to the masses. The compilers
had not only compiled the history but due to the quality of the
compilation had created a conviction about its utility in a number
of life-devoting reciters. Such a great importance they had attached
to the science of historiography.
are the Indian notions of history writing. These must have evolved
due to the longevity of this nation. The compilers were to write
the history of a nation, the beginning of which goes to the
remotest past. Nobody knows the date. The life of this nation
is longer than that of the writing material, whether paper, palmyra
leaves, metals or stone. It is said that the barbarian invaders
have destroyed our libraries and the source material. No doubt
they have destroyed a lot. The huge library at Nalanda University
was burning for days together. But in case of this nation, this
loss can be said to be only a drop in the ocean. Nature and natural
calamities have destroyed major portion of the source material.
One thousand sites of Harappan civilization known so far, were
destroyed by natural calamities. What a huge source material
must have been destroyed then ? And it is but natural for a nation
having such a longevity.
We do not know whether Valmiki
who is said to have written the Ramayana and Vyasa who is said
to have compiled the Mahabharata and the Puranas, themselves knew
about the beginning of the life of this nation. One need not
wonder hence, if they take the birth of this nation with that
of the Creation it self. In ancient Indian literature, the compilation
by Vyasa is numbered 28th, believe it-or not. None of the previous
compilations is available at present. Many doubt whether they
should believe in those 27 compilations. But what about the Tamil
Sangam literature ? Three Sangams i.e., associations of literature,
are said to have continued for long number of years. Of the three
Sangams the literature of only the last Sangam, that too very
few books, is available now. All the rest was washed away by
the sea, a natural calamity.
Longevity Decided Historiography:
is possible in case of short lived nations to prepare a continuous
chronology of their history but not so in case of India whose
source material is being destroyed by nature because of its longevity.
Indians have evolved their special type of historiography suitable
not only to describe their past but also to help the nation to
continue its life for long in future. It was a carefully studied
decision. It saved the Indian nation for the last thousands of
years from the man-made attacks as well as natural calamities.
It also saved their nation from the bad effects of ample prosperity
which some countries are found experiencing at present. The availability
of continuous chronology of short lived nations may be useful
to other nations for information, but not much for guidance
to plan their future. Indian historiography is definitely useful
for this. They can understand the secrets of longevity of the
Hindus. The Indian notion of historiography is much superior
to the European one.
Understanding the Change:
The world circumstances have
very much changed now. During the past two or three centuries,
the world has experienced such a rapid change as was never witnessed
over thousands of years in the past. The inventions relating
to communications have made the world smaller. Within a few hours
one can get any piece of information from any quarter of the world.
The scientific developments have whetted the desire for extensive
and exact knowledge and also inspired confidence in acquiring
it. In such circumstances it is essential that the Indian history
books are made up-to-date. The utility of Indian history is now
not limited to the Indians only. The world wants to know it and
learn from it. A long interval has passed since books on Indian
history were compiled according to the Bharateeya historiography.
Fresh effort is most urgent. The changed circumstances should
also be taken note of. In this new recension, in addition to
the original qualities of Indian historiography, some complementary
details, like the chronology for some thousands of years, may
be added to facilitate the foreigners to understand
Westerner's Urge to Know
the Secrets of Longevity:
Especially after industrialization,
when so many isms have cropped up, each dogmatically putting forth
its theory as the best, and when most of them have failed we see
many Western scholars, like Theodar Shey, who want to know the
secrets of the longevity of Hindu society and the number of such
scholars is ever increasing. India of today, is well behind many
other countries as far as industrialization, development of scientific
knowledge and material prosperity are concerned. But the Indian,
in comparison with other nationals is found enjoying mental peace
and tranquillity, faith in his heritage and tradition and confidence
of getting help from his society. Western scholars want to know
the reasons for this difference.
It is essential to understand
the meaning of the word 'Itihasa'. Today the subject of
history that is being taught in the Indian educational institutions
consists of only political events. If the English word 'history'
has that limited meaning that cannot be the translation of Bharateeya
word Itihasa. Itihasa includes narration
of past events concerning all the facets of human life-material,
moral and spiritual. On the basis of this approach towards animate
and inanimate world, Itihasa has tried to ingrain moral
values in every individual of the Hindu society as one constituent
of the whole nature. The European approach has ever been material.
Though Europeans and others, in recent years, are found increasing
the scope of the meaning of the word history, and it is encompassing
many other subjects than political history, it has remained limited
to the material world only. Many such scholars are found nowadays
to discover the history of the common man as against that of the
kings. It may be called a reaction to the kingship which is now
observed as outdated. But herein, man is taken as a material
being. Indian approach, as the word Itihasa means, has
all the time remained integrated, taking man as a spiritual as
well as material constituent of nature. It is more
broad and real than taking man as only a material being.
That is the approach in which
Vyasa had compiled Indian history. About his epic Mahabharata,
it is said that the author has tackled all subjects in the world.
"Vyasotchishtam jagatsarvar". Hence the present
compilation should include the matter regarding all subjects concerning
human life. Apart from these subjects, history should cover all
parts of India, moreover, it will be appreciated by the foreign
scholars, if a continuous chronology could be decided at least
for the last 5000 years i. e., from the date of Harappan culture
or in other words from the beginning of the Kali Era which is
commonly accepted throughout India.
Great efforts will be required
to compile the above mentioned comprehensive history, There is
one difficulty also. Vyasa's compilation of ancient Indian history
is known to be the last one. It was compiled, according to the
tradition, just after the Mahabharata War. Very less information
is available from the date of the Bharata War till the time of
Buddha. Some scholars attribute this to natural calamities like
earth-quakes, sand-storms, heat and cold waves, etc.. Whatever
be the reasons that information is meager. After the Buddha, from
the sixth century BC India has faced constant invasions from foreigners.
Many of them were barbarous by nature and have destroyed the
historical source material. These invasions have continued for
thousands of years. it is definitely creditable to India that
it defended itself against such powerful invaders who had destroyed
empires like the Roman and the Persian. But Indians were not
able to devote time for constructive social activities like historiography,
possible in peaceful circumstances. This discontinuance is a
difficulty which the new compilers will have to face and will
have to increase the enormity of their efforts.
Slow Indian Pace:
In spite of the necessity
of such enormous efforts, Indian scholars do not seem to have
applied themselves to the task to that extent even after independence.
Yajnyashalas were discovered in the excavations even before our
independence. More than forty years have passed since then.
But the corollaries of the archaeological discoveries in the excavations
have not found their way into our textbooks. Even today, the
curriculum teaches the Aryan race theory, their invasion over
India and the separateness of the Harappan culture from the so-called
Aryan culture. What is the reason for this slow speed
in historiography ?
Speed of Britishers:
As against this, the progress
of the Britishers in the study of Indian history was very fast.
It may be that the hypothesis assumed by them to fix the chronology
of ancient Indian history may not be correct. After all, they
were foreigners. Their approach was not rooted in the culture
of India. But the energies they applied to this work are
praise worthy. They came for trade in the beginning of the seventeenth
century. They decided to capture the political power of this
land in the second quarter of the eighteenth century. By the first
quarter of the nineteenth century they were masters of the whole
of India. And by the end of the nineteenth century they had established
the Aryan race theory and entire chronology of Indian history.
What is the reason for the difference in this speed ?
In comparison with the Britishers,
the only reason for slow Indian speed seems to be a lack of national
consciousness, pleat and Organization. Before they reached India,
the Britishers were a nation of organized patriots and disciplined
and devoted individuals. Continuous were their efforts for such
an organization from eleventh century onwards. They were able
to pool the efforts of individuals who were applying their full
capacities and energies to the cause. We know of James Princep
who lived only for 39 years. He had devoted some hours everyday
for seven years and in the end was successful in deciphering the
Brahmi script. Many others like Jones, Pargiter, etc. were similarly
active in the field. They had their family and service responsibilities.
Inspite of this they were devoting so many man-hours everyday.
They used to put down in writing their findings and researches
on the basis of which they used to discuss in meetings in an organized
way. These discussions and writings put in black and white were
preserved. These writings are available today in the issues of
the journals of Royal Asiatic Society, etc.. All this is worth
not only appreciating but following also, Thanks to them for such
an organized execution and preservation.
Vyasa's Organized Work
Vyasa and his team of devoted
scholars also had worked in an organized manner. They had compiled
history books after collecting maximum possible data then available
in various parts of India. All the data was sorted out into some
divisions and each division was allotted to a group of able scholars.
This organization worked in a systematic way securing cooperation
from various disciplines and arriving at concurrent decisions
after sufficient discussions. They were required to put in strenuous
efforts spread over a number of years. The books thus compiled
got recognition and respect from all over India.
Collection of historical data
is the first necessity for compilation. The necessary source
material can be found in many countries apart from India i.e.,
Bharat of 1947 creation. It is now firmly established that in
the first millennium BC, India had close contacts with countries
from Greece, in the west up to China in the east. Many scholars
are attributing Indian impact even on the ancient Maya and Inca
civilizations of America. Data should be collected from all these
countries. Maximum information, of course, will be available
in India, Pakistan, Bangla Desh, Nepal, Tibet, Burma, Sri Lanka
and the south-east Asian countries. All this should be sorted
out subjectwise, districtwise and countrywise or according to
the Brihaspati Cycles of Kali Era. Subjectwise information will
facilitate writing a comprehensive history of all subjects. Disrictwise
information will be useful for presenting an all India picture
of history and the cyclewise information can be used to set up
a continuous chronology acceptable to all, at least for some thousands
of years. Whatever data is available should all be collected.
Data collection, though a
must for history writing, is a time consuming and very tedious
work. It will be properly done by those who are interested in
that, who take it as their duty towards the nation and who are
convinced that this work will be useful for humanity. Those who
work only for remuneration will not be able to collect ample and
correct data in a stipulated time. It may not be trustworthy
also. A large number of such devoted persons will be required
as the data for all the subjects and all the districts is to be
collected. A proper plan should be drawn and the work should
be organized on all India level. It will be a centrally planned
scheme working under a big organization. The nature of the work
will select the proper individuals just like a plant collects
the useful matter for its growth from the soil and nature. Progress
will be possible only when such persons are selected. The data
collectors will have to work without a bias in their minds about
the date of an event or its version. Their work is to collect
all the available material. By collection of sufficient data
the question about the date or version of an event will also be
solved. For example, there are two dates for the birth of Adi
Shankara, one in the sixth century BC and the other in the eighth
century AD. With the progress in work, when sufficient information
about many subjects or events of those two centuries becomes available,
then, on the basis of contemporaneity of the events, the collected
information will facilitate the decision of the date of Adi Shankara.
Seers will Bloom:
Thus, conviction of
the utility of this work for his nation and humanity, sense of
duty towards it and doing unbiased collection are the primary
qualities of an individual who is to work in this history project.
Many other qualities are also needed, just like knowledge of
different scripts, mobility, knowledge of languages, finance,
etc. But all these are secondary. Even the literary abilities
come afterwards. Of course those are essential for final compilation
but for such able persons also, the necessity of primary qualities
stands. The primary qualities are those of heart and due to these,
the organization will be a live organization. The life in the
organization will collect the necessary individuals of varying
capacities required for its growth. In course of time, when it
is opportune, it will be able to project individuals like our
seers of the past having intellectual acumen, proper judgment,
literary qualities and sense of working as a part of the organization.
It is they who will write properly the history books according
to the Hindu historiography suitable to the present day world.
1. Bharateeya Itihas Mala,
(Rajneitic Khand) Bhag I Hindi Rs. 15- 00
Translated into Telugu, English,
Marathi, Gujarathi, Assamese,
Kannada and Tamil. Rs. 20-00 each.
2. Bharateeya Historiography Rs. 5-00
Translated into Hindi, Telugu,
Kannada, Tamil, Marathi.
3. Aryan Invasion-A Myth Rs. 75-00
4. The Dates of The Buddha, Deluxe Rs. 75-00
English. Ordinary Rs. 30-00
5. History of Hyderabad District
English Vol. I Rs. 50-00
6. Hindi Jagaran Abhishap Ya Vardan, Rs. 80-00
Translated into Telugu, Marathi, Kannada, Gujarathi.
7. Sarasvati Shodh, Hindi. Rs. 5-00
8. Vedic Astronomy, English Rs. 50-00
9. Bharateey Yudha Astronomical Rs. 12-00
10. Yug Yuqeen Kashi, Hindi Rs. 100-00
11. Date of Mahabharata War English Rs. 5-00
12. Bharateeya Kalganana ki Roop Rekha,
Hindi Rs. 15 - 00
Who Were They (English).
Hindu Renaissance-Curse or Boon (English).
First Edition, 1988
Second Edition, 1991
Copies : 1200
Books are available at
Apte Smarak Bhavan Mahal, Nagpur-440 002.
2. Sahitya Niketan 3-4-852,
Barakatpura, Hyderabad-500 027.
3. 528-C, Shanivarpet Pune-411
4. Suruchi Sahitya Zandewala,
Deshbandhu Gupta Marg, New Delhi-110 055.
5. Bharateeya Ithas Sankalan
Samithi 14/3 RT,
L I G H Barakatpura, Hyderabad-500 027.