did not come back by the direct way, but took a guide and marching by the way of Mansura
and the bank of the Sihun, went towards Multan. His soldiers suffered heavily on the way,
both from the dryness of the desert and from the Jatts of Sind. Many animals and a large
number of men of the Muslim army perished on the way, and most of the beasts of burden
died, till at last they reached Multan."4
writing two hundred yearslater, mentions the same reason for Mahmud's retreat, and
corroborates Al-Gardizi: "The Sultan raised his standard with the intention of
returning, but as Param Deo, one of the most powerful of the Rajas of Hindustan, had to be
met on the way, he did not consider it advisable to fight with him at that time,
under all circumstances; he turned towards Multan by way of Sindh."
4 Zain-ul-Akhbar, pp. 86-87 of the Text.