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Major Sections
Books By Rajaji
Ramayana Mahabharata

Bhagavad Gita

Bhaja Govindam

Kural

Upanishads

Hinduism Doctrine And Way Of Living

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KURAL - THE GREAT BOOK OF TIRU-VALLUVAR

Kulapati 's preface

Author

It is our intension to publish the books we select , not only in English, but also in the following Indian languages: Hindi, Bengal, Gujarati, Marathi, Tamil, Telugu etc.,

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CHAKRAVARTI RAJAGOPALACHARI, popularly known as 'Rajaji" or "C.R" was a great patriot, astute politician, incisive thinker, and one of the greatest of Indians.

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Foreword

Preface To The Original (Rochouse) Edition

TIRUKKURAL is a poetic composition of great antiquity in the Tamil literature, many great minds have shed their powerful, radian light on this gem and justly famous classic of Tamil literature.

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Tiru - Valluvar's approach to moral doctrine is marked by a very through knowledge of human psychology and a desire to help imperfect men with practical hints in the struggle against evil.

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Preface To Revised Edition Of Kural

Dharma

This is a thoroughly revised fourth edition of my book of selections from Tiru-Valluvar's great book. 

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There is no greater wealth one can acquire than Dharma and no misfortune greater than the forgetting of it.

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The Good House Holder

The Life - partner

The householder so -   called helps the other orders in the proper fulfilment of their duties.

 

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She is a true life companion who proves equal to the tasks of a householder's life, adjusting herself to the bread winner's resources.

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Children

A Loving Disposition

Of all things that one may be blessed with , we can think of nothing equal to the house of having begot children who have grown up to true enlightenment:

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Those who have not a loving disposition, belong wholly to themselves. 

 

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An Open House

The Soft Word

The only justification for a man to remain in family life and for acquiring and keeping property is that he may command the means by which help may be given to those who seek help:

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The speech of enlightened men consists of truth soaked in affection:

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Gratitude

Rectitude

The good deed that is done not in return, but in the first instance, is more precious than anything in this world or beyond.

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The acquisition of a man of rectitude go down to his children without diminution and will protect them against adversity:

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Self - Control

The Regulated life

self - Control is as necessary a virtue for the house holder as for the recluse.

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Discipline of life is more precious than life itself, for it is out of that discipline that life derives value:

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Unlawful Life

Forbearance

It is stupidity to entertain amorous  thoughts about one who belongs to another.

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Does not the earth support the man that is engaged in digging it? 

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Do Not Envy

Do Not Covet

There is no greater wealth than the possession of a mind that is free from envy:.........

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Azhukkaru  is envy, an inability to feel happy at the sight of another's well-being.

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Speak Not ill Of Others

Avoid Worthless Talk

you may sometimes speak the harshest things to a man's face,

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He who indulges in purposeless talk causing disgust to his company earns universal contempt:

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Conscience

Social Cooperation

The title of the chapter giving this and following couplets, is trepidation at the though of wrong-doing.

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What good did the creatures of the earth do to the clouds that pour the rain?

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Helping The Poor

Public Esteem

That alone is a gift which is given to the needy.  Gifts to others are in the nature of business transactions where in what is given is expected to be duty returned.

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Poverty is wealth if it is brought about for causes that raise a man in the esteem of the world.

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Compassion

Eat No Meat

Diverse are the teaching of the religions of the world, but in all will be found that compassion is that which gives men spiritual deliverance.

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How can a man adopt the way of compassion, goring on the flesh of other beings in order to fatten his own flesh?

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Penance

Impure Life

When Kural was written the monastic life was common in South India.  Tiru - Valluvar does not oppose it.

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If one has falsehood in his heart and secretly breaks the law of celibacy the five elements that watch from inside his body laugh at the futile fraud

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Truthfulness

Against Anger

Truthfulness is attained if one's speech is such that it harms no being in the world:

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He truly is anger less who does not give vent to anger when the wrong doer is under his power.               [More....]

Do Not Cause Harm

The Fleeting World

The best punishment for those who do evil to you, is to shame them by returning good for evil        

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Like the crowd that gather to Seeta play comes dazzling wealth.

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Renunciation

True Knowledge

As one by one you detach yourself from the things of the world you are saved from pain in respect of it:

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Those who have learnt to perceive the Real will surely take the path leading to deliverance from rebirth

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Renouncing Of Desire

The Law Of Karma

The desirelessness recommended in Indian philosophy does not appeal to the modern mind which depends upon hope and faith in human heart.

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The doctrine of Karma as enunciated in Hindu Shastras is accepted in toto and without any modification in the Kural.

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Vigilance

Industriousness 

The neglectfulness that is apt to arise out of the intoxication of achievement is more harmful than even inordinate anger:

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Family virtues (i.e. inherited qualities) naturally persist, but are apt to disappear unless kept up by unflagging industry....

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The Strenuous Life

Fortitude

Let not the magnitude of any task unman you.  Strenuous effort ever brings victory.

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One's spirit should not be broken down by misfortune, adversity or defeat.

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On Learning

On Being Unlettered

The first thing laid down in Kural dealing with learning is the duty of relating one's conduct to one's knowledge.

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The Tamil classics lay very great emphasis on education.

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Knowledge Through Listening

On Friendship

Knowledge acquired or confirmed by listening to the teachings and expeditions of learned men was a major division of learning in our ancient system.

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The Friendship of men of character is like the young moon which grows as the days pass.

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Folly

Guard Against Deceivers

The biggest folly among follies is to cherish a desire for a prohibited object.

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Protection against the heat of the sun is good.  So also is water good.

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A Warning 

On Lust And Wine And Gambling

The Wife is generally treated with great consideration in Kural.

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Thirty Kural couplets are devoted to warning men against lust, wine and gambling.

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On The Art Of Healing

Self Respect

Make a careful diagnosis, discover the true cause of the disease, think out the proper remedy, and apply it effectively:

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When you have wealth, cultivate humility; when your means are straitened, then it is that you should hold your head high:

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Glory

Looking After The Tribe

Glory consists in wealth of spirit. To decide to live though devoid of it is inglorious:

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The Tamil classics lay great stress on the duty of conserving the affection of relatives and dependents.

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Niggardliness

Repugnance To Evil

When wealth is neither enjoyed by oneself nor given to deserving persons, the possessor becomes a disease to society:

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The quick and instinctive shrinking from wrong and improper actions is one of the essential elements of good character.

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Unscrupulous Men

On Agriculture

Strange indeed is the complete physical resemblance of the unscrupulous to the human species.  

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Many other industries may be taken up, but ultimately the world depends on agriculture.

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On Poverty

Labour

Poverty is vividly described in this verse

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If the world were so ordered that one of it inhabitants must live in dependence and on the mercy of others.

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The Prosperous State

Action

A Prince will be a lion among princes whose State has an adequate army.

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In every action there are the three elements of loss, acquisition a nd value.

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Judging The Time

Tactics

Is there anything impossible if the right means are adopted and the right hour is chosen?

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Till you find the place suitable for surrounding the opposing force, do not begin your attack.

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Choosing The Executive

Good Ministers

Before entrusting a man with power, test his loyalty by putting him through trials in respect of his attachment to life, religion, wealth and pleasure.

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The king's ministers are his eyes.  So he should choose them with circumspection.

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Good Birth

Nobility

To be born in a good family is useful qualification.

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As non-killing is the  most important element in the ascetic's duties, abstention is also .,

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Just Rule

Oppression And Misrule

All dharma and all the codes of teacher are ultimately dependent on the king's good government:

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The oppressive king who misgoverns is a worse sinner than the murderer.

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Penalties

The Good Minister

The principles of punishment are tersely put in the following verses.

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A Minister should be resolute in action, have the welfare of the people at heart.

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Resoluteness

On Spies

'Okkam' is the quality of mind which shows itself eagerness  for action without weakening or wavering.

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The departments of spies was in the old day considered one of the most important branches of the public service.

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The Art Of Persuasion

Assembly Work

Tiru-Valluvar lays down that power of expression is an essential qualification for a successful councilor.

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The minister had to deal not only with the king but with a council that sat to deliberate on affairs.

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The Moral Law

The Dangers Of The Palace

Kural insists on the moral law being followed in acts of State.

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These are precepts for those whose work keeps them near kings, telling them how to escape the dangers of courts.

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A Prosperous Nation

Fortifications

The requisites for prosperous State are industrious producers.

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Fortifications are as important for the prince who, confidents of his strength, sets out on aggressive operation,

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A Well Filled Exchequer

Efficiency In Action

There is nothing so effective as wealth, which has the quality of giving worth even to worthless men:

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We have here couplets dealing with the principle to be observed by an efficient minister

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The Offensive

The Army

The chapter of Kural devoted to aggressive action by princes displays remarkable practical wisdom,

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Among all that a State should possess the most important is good army.

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Valour

About Envoys And Messengers

In beautiful relief against the general did acetic style of Kural, here and there we land n sparkling poetry.

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The qualification essential for a successful envoy are an affectionate temperament.

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Enemies

On Citizenship

Even in jest do not entertain the wish to make an enemy  of any one.

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Kidseyal vogal is how to be a good citizen.

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